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PENTA Guidelines aim to provide practical recommendations for treating children with HIV infection in Europe. Changes to guidance since 2004 have been informed by new evidence and by expectations of better outcomes following the ongoing success of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Participation in PENTA trials of simplifying treatment is encouraged. The main(More)
A case-control study of 305 children was done to evaluate the relationship between toxocariasis and seizures and risk factors associated with toxocariasis transmission and seizure onset. A significant association existed between seropositivity for anti-Toxocara canis and seizures (p less than 0.05); the correlation was closest in children aged less than 5(More)
In 1998, outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were reported in children attending Al-Fateh Hospital in Benghazi, Libya. Here we use molecular phylogenetic techniques to analyse new virus sequences from these outbreaks. We find that the HIV-1 and HCV strains were already circulating and prevalent in(More)
BACKGROUND The introduction of HAART has decreased mortality and progression to AIDS in perinatally HIV-1-infected children, but information on modification of the rate of specific clinical events is limited. METHOD An observational population study on changes in HIV-1-related morbidity was conducted on 1402 perinatally HIV-1-infected children enrolled in(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the impact of early versus deferred combined antiretroviral treatment (ART) in asymptomatic or moderately symptomatic [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) category N, A or B] infants with perinatal HIV-1 infection. METHODS A multi-centre nationwide case-control study was conducted. Data from 30 infants treated with(More)
OBJECTIVE To define age at entry into Tanner stages in children with perinatal HIV-1 infection. DESIGN Multicentre longitudinal study including 212 perinatally HIV-1-infected children (107 girls and 105 boys) followed-up during puberty (from 8 and 9 years onwards in girls and boys, respectively). Healthy children (843 girls and 821 boys) provided(More)
AIM To investigate rates and determinants of adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Italian children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS An observational, cross-sectional multicentre study was performed through a structured interview with the caregivers of HIV-infected children. The interview included quantitative information on(More)
OBJECTIVES Lopinavir/ritonavir is approved for treatment of HIV-infected children at a dosage regimen of 230/57.5 mg/m(2) twice daily. However, once daily administration could increase convenience and patient adherence. Our study aimed at evaluating whether inhibitory concentrations are maintained in plasma following administration of lopinavir/ritonavir(More)