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Farnesylpyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) is a key enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthesis. Several classes of essential metabolites, including sterols, quinones, carotenoids and gibberellins, are terpenoids with high biological activity. The structural gene for FPP synthase was isolated from two ascomycete fungi, Neurospora crassa and Gibberella fujikuroi. A(More)
Shuttling transport receptors carry cargo through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) via transient interactions with Phe-Gly (FG)-rich nucleoporins. Here, we identify Arx1, a factor associated with a late 60S preribosomal particle in the nucleus, as an unconventional export receptor. Arx1 binds directly to FG nucleoporins and exhibits facilitated translocation(More)
A fusion protein consisting of the endothelin B (ET(B)) receptor and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in conjunction with Cyanin3- or fluorescein-conjugated endothelin 1 (Cy3-ET1, Fluo-ET1) was used to investigate the ligand-mediated internalization of the ET(B) receptor. The ET(B) receptor and the ET(B)/EGFP fusion protein displayed very(More)
For the analysis of membrane transport processes two single molecule methods are available that differ profoundly in data acquisition principle, achievable information, and application range: the widely employed electrical single channel recording and the more recently established optical single transporter recording. In this study dense arrays of(More)
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a versatile tool for investigating the mobilities of fluorescent molecules in cells. In this article, we show that it is possible to distinguish between freely diffusing and membrane-bound forms of biomolecules involved in signal transduction in living cells. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy was used to(More)
We report on new insights into the mechanisms of short single and double stranded oligonucleotide release from cationic lipid complexes (lipoplexes), used in gene therapy. Specifically, we modeled endosomal membranes using giant unilamellar vesicles and investigated the roles of various individual cellular phospholipids in interaction with lipoplexes. Our(More)
We generated fusion proteins consisting of the endothelin-B (ET(B))-receptor and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to visualize receptor internalization. In Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) clones expressing ET(B)/EGFP fusion proteins, single class high affinity binding sites for [125I]endothelin-1 (ET-1) were found (for two different clones(More)
An enzyme-linked microplate immunoassay for the analysis of primary DNA lesions is described. The assay principle is based on the interaction of the bacterial DNA repair proteins UvrA and UvrB with DNA and on the immunodetection of UvrB forming a stable complex with covalently modified nucleotides. Using this technique we were able to detect damages in(More)
The osmotic lysis of pinosomes procedure has been adapted to deliver small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) into cells in culture. Under hypertonic conditions, siRNAs were internalized into pinosomes. A subsequent osmotic shock in hypotonic buffer disrupted the pinosomes and caused the release of siRNAs into the cell cytoplasm. Both steps could be demonstrated(More)
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