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Acute psychological stress can trigger normal and abnormal motivated behaviors such as reward seeking, habitual behavior, and drug craving. Animal research suggests that such effects may result from actions of catecholamines and glucocorticoids that converge in brain regions that regulate motivated behaviors and incentive processing. At present, however,(More)
Demanding cognitive tasks are sometimes carried out under stressful conditions. Several studies indicate that whereas severe stress impairs performance, moderate stress can enhance cognitive performance. In this study, we investigated how moderate stress influences the neural systems supporting working memory. We embedded an N-back working memory task in a(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in memory and the pathophysiology of various neuropsychiatric disorders. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the human BDNF gene (Val66Met) affects memory, and influences Alzheimer's disease and depression vulnerability in a sex-specific manner. Recent animal studies suggest that BDNF mediates memory for(More)
Neuroimaging studies have consistently linked depression to hyperactivation of a (para)limbic affective processing network centered around the amygdala. Recent studies have started to investigate how antidepressant drugs affect amygdala reactivity in healthy individuals, but the influence of their subchronic administration on the functional integrity of the(More)
INTRODUCTION Individuals who are exposed to a traumatic event are at increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies have shown that increased amygdala activity is frequently found in patients with PTSD. In addition, pre-trauma glucocorticoid receptor (GR) number in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(More)
Increased amygdala reactivity in response to salient stimuli is seen in patients with affective disorders, in healthy subjects at risk for these disorders, and in stressed individuals, making it a prime target for mechanistic studies into the pathophysiology of affective disorders. However, whereas individual differences in neuroticism are thought to(More)
Resting-state studies in depressed patients have revealed increased connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) and task-positive network (TPN). This has been associated with heightened rumination, which is the tendency to repetitively think about symptoms of distress. Here, we performed a pharmacological neuroimaging study in healthy volunteers to(More)
Female mate choice involves the comparative evaluation of potential mates. Females use a pooled comparison of sampled males to maximize the perceived reproductive fitness of their partner, implying the memorization of sampled males. However, hormonal and reproductive states influence female choosiness, and women's preference and memory for masculinity.(More)
BACKGROUND Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by severe difficulties in interpersonal relationships and emotional functioning. Theories of BPD suggest that individuals with BPD have heightened emotional sensitivity, increased stress reactivity, and problems in making sense of intentions of others. In this study we investigated stress(More)
It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, tryptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport across the blood-brain-barrier, a limitation that can be(More)