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Methods for optimizing the prediction of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase promoter sequences by neural networks are presented. A neural network was trained on a set of 80 known promoter sequences combined with different numbers of random sequences. The conserved -10 region and -35 region of the promoter sequences and a combination of these regions were used(More)
Nanoscale one-dimensional (1D) structures have stimulated great interest recently because of their unique electronic, optical, and mechanical properties as a result of their low-dimensionality and the quantum confinement effect. 1 Considerable amount of studies have been documented on the bulk synthesis of nanowires using arc discharge, 2 laser ablation,(More)
For the first time, patterned growth of boron nitride nanotubes is achieved by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) at 1200 °C using MgO, Ni, or Fe as the catalysts, and an Al 2 O 3 diffusion barrier as underlayer. The as-grown BNNTs are clean, vertically aligned, and have high crystallinity. Near band-edge absorption ∼6.0 eV is detected, without(More)
The three-dimensional structure of an unusually active hydrolytic antibody with a phosphonate transition state analog (hapten) bound to the active site has been solved to 2.5 A resolution. The antibody (17E8) catalyzes the hydrolysis of norleucine and methionine phenyl esters and is selective for amino acid esters that have the natural alpha-carbon L(More)
Dissociable antibody microarray (DAMA) staining is a technology that combines protein microarrays with traditional immunostaining techniques. It can simultaneously determine the expression and subcellular location of hundreds of proteins in cultured cells and tissue samples. We developed this technology and demonstrated its application in identifying(More)
Accurate conversion of wideband multi-GHz analog signals into the digital domain has long been a target of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) developers, driven by applications in radar systems, software radio, medical imaging, and communication systems. Aperture jitter has been a major bottleneck on the way towards higher speeds and better accuracy.(More)
Crystallization of macromolecules for structural studies has long been a hit-or-miss process. The crystallization of hexanucleotides as Z-DNA was studied, and it was shown that the cation concentration for crystal formation could be predicted from solvation free energy (SFE) calculations. Solution studies on the conformation and solubilities of the(More)
Starting from the Monod-Wyman-Changeux (MWC) model (Monod, J., J. Wyman, and J. P. Changeux. 1965. J. Mol. Biol. 12:88-118), we obtain an analytical expression for the slope of the Hill plot at any ligand concentration. Furthermore, we derive an equation satisfied by the ligand concentration at the position of maximum slope. From these results, we derive a(More)
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