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A total of 382 isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus originating from three Austrian regions and one adjacent Italian region (Vienna, Lower Austria, North Tyrol, and South Tyrol) were typed by DNA sequence analysis of the variable repeat region of the protein A gene (spa typing). The strain collection consisted of arbitrarily chosen(More)
In order to assess the lethality of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) and the PCR ribotypes prevalent in Austria, the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety requested isolates of C. difficile from patients in a structured but arbitrary sampling scheme. In the allocated period from February 2006 to January 2007, local hospital laboratories(More)
We have developed a Clostridium difficile PCR ribotyping method based on capillary gel electrophoresis and have compared it with conventional PCR ribotyping. A total of 146 C. difficile isolates were studied: five isolates were reference strains (PCR ribotypes 001, 014, 017, 027 and 053); 141 were clinical isolates comprising 39 Austrian PCR ribotypes(More)
Rifaximin is a rifampicin derivative, poorly absorbed by the gastro-intestinal tract. We studied the in vitro susceptibility to rifamixin of 1082 Clostridium difficile isolates; among these, 184 isolates from a strain collection were tested by an in-house rifaximin disc (40 µg) diffusion test, by an in-house rifaximin broth microdilution test, by rifampicin(More)
Clostridium difficile infection is an increasing problem in hospitals worldwide, mainly due to the recent emergence of a hypervirulent C. difficile strain. C. difficile PCR ribotyping, based on size variation of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (16S-23S ISR), is widely used in Europe for molecular epidemiological investigation. The mechanism(More)
BACKGROUND We studied the etiology of acute gastroenteritis in a village with a total population of approximately 6,000. This is the first study in Austria that has investigated a broad range of pathogens recovered from an unselected population of patients who had consulted general practitioners because of gastroenteritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS In 2007,(More)
This pan-European study included unrelated strains of Legionella pneumophila obtained from 1335 cases of Legionnaires' disease. The isolates were serotyped into the serogroups 1 to 15 by monoclonal antibodies (MAb) and/or rabbit antisera. Additionally, MAb subgrouping was undertaken for isolates belonging to serogroups 1, 4, and 5. Monoclonal types of(More)
The clinical utility of Legionella urinary antigen assays for the diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease was assessed by using samples from 317 culture-proven cases. The sensitivities of the Binax enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and Biotest EIA were found to be 93.7 and 94.4% for travel-associated infection and 86.5 and 76.0% for community-acquired infection but only(More)
Controlled parallel experiments were performed on the Vienna test model for the evaluation of procedures for hygienic hand-disinfection in three laboratories (Vienna, Mainz, Birmingham). The degerming activity of four procedures, each taking 1 min, was assessed repeatedly and compared with that of a standard disinfection procedure (ST) using isopropanol 60%(More)
Between 1999 and 2007 1,388 stool specimens from patients with acute flaccid paralysis or aseptic meningitis were submitted to the Austrian reference laboratory for poliomyelitis. Samples (201) yielded non-poliovirus enterovirus in culture. One hundred eighty-one viruses were available for typing and 78 isolates which remained serologically untyped were(More)