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One of the conclusions drawn at the CASP4 meeting in Asilomar was that applying various force fields during refinement of template-based models tends to move predictions in the wrong direction, away from the experimentally determined coordinates. We have derived an all-atom force field aimed at protein and nucleotide optimization in vacuo (NOVA), which has(More)
Conjugative plasmids are involved in the dissemination of important traits such as antibiotic resistance, virulence determinants and metabolic pathways involved in adapting to environmental niches, a process termed horizontal or lateral gene transfer. Conjugation is the process of transferring DNA from a donor to a recipient cell with the establishment of(More)
  • G Koraimann
  • 2003
The cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria is essential for the integrity of the bacterial cell but also imposes a physical barrier to trans-envelope transport processes in which DNA and/or proteins are taken up or secreted by complex protein assemblies. The presence of genes encoding lytic transglycosylases in macromolecular transport systems (bacteriophage(More)
Specialized lytic transglycosylases are muramidases capable of locally degrading the peptidoglycan meshwork of Gram-negative bacteria. Specialized lytic transglycosylase genes are present in clusters encoding diverse macromolecular transport systems. This paper reports the analysis of selected members of the specialized lytic transglycosylase family from(More)
Conditions perturbing protein homeostasis are known to induce cellular stress responses in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here we show for the first time that expression and assembly of a functional type IV secretion (T4S) machinery elicit extracytoplasmic and cytoplasmic stress responses in Escherichia coli. After induction of T4S genes by a nutritional(More)
The solution structure of the DNA-binding domain of the TraM protein, an essential component of the DNA transfer machinery of the conjugative resistance plasmid R1, is presented. The structure has been determined using homonuclear 2-dimensional NMR spectroscopy as well as 15N labeled heteronuclear 2- and 3-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. It turns out that the(More)
A key determinant of the frequency of IncF plasmid-mediated DNA transfer between enterobacterial cells is the FinOP system. traJ, a positive regulator of the transfer (tra) genes is controlled at the post-transcriptional level by two negative elements, finP and finO. FinP is a plasmid-specific antisense RNA, whereas finO encodes a proteic co-repressor which(More)
The degradation of the polycistronic tra-mRNA of the resistance plasmid R1-19 leads to the accumulation of a well defined series of stable mRNA species. The majority of the most stable mRNAs contains the message for the traA gene only. The differently sized stable mRNAs possess a common 3'terminus within the traL gene but vary at their 5' ends. The(More)
F-like plasmids require a number of genes for conjugation, including tra operon genes and genes traM and traJ, which lie outside the tra operon. We now establish that a gene in the "leading region," gene 19, provides an important function during conjugation and RNA phage infection. Mutational inactivation of gene 19 on plasmid R1-16 by introduction of two(More)
Transcription of DNA transfer genes is a prerequisite for conjugative DNA transfer of F-like plasmids. Transfer gene expression is sensed by the donor cell and is regulated by a complex network of plasmid- and host-encoded factors. In this study we analyzed the effect of induction of the heat shock regulon on transfer gene expression and DNA transfer in(More)