Learn More
BACKGROUND Iron deficiency is a common and undertreated problem in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIM To develop an online tool to support treatment choice at the patient-specific level. METHODS Using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method (RUAM), a European expert panel assessed the appropriateness of treatment regimens for a variety of clinical(More)
Erythropoietin (EPO) is the principal cytokine regulating erythropoiesis through its receptor, EPOR. Interestingly, EPORs are also found on immune cells with incompletely understood functions. Here, we show that EPO inhibits the induction of proinflammatory genes including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase in activated(More)
Macrophages and neutrophils play a decisive role in host responses to intracellular bacteria including the agent of tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis as they represent the forefront of innate immune defense against bacterial invaders. At the same time, these phagocytes are also primary targets of intracellular bacteria to be abused as host(More)
Under chronic inflammatory conditions cytokines induce a diversion of iron traffic, leading to hypoferremia and retention of the metal within the reticuloendothelial system. However, the regulatory pathways underlying these disturbances of iron homeostasis are poorly understood. We investigated transferrin receptor (TfR)-dependent and -independent iron(More)
Recently, it was reported that nitric oxide (NO) directly controls intracellular iron metabolism by activating iron regulatory protein (IRP), a cytoplasmic protein that regulates ferritin translation. To determine whether intracellular iron levels themselves affect NO synthase (NOS), we studied the effect of iron on cytokine-inducible NOS activity and mRNA(More)
Both, mammalian cells and microbes have an essential need for iron, which is required for many metabolic processes and for microbial pathogenicity. In addition, cross-regulatory interactions between iron homeostasis and immune function are evident. Cytokines and the acute phase protein hepcidin affect iron homeostasis leading to the retention of the metal(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) generated by inducible NO synthase 2 (NOS2) affects cellular iron homeostasis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and implications for NOS2-dependent pathogen control are incompletely understood. In this study, we found that NO up-regulated the expression of ferroportin-1 (Fpn1), the major cellular iron exporter, in mouse and human(More)
Several cellular mRNAs are regulated posttranscriptionally by iron-responsive elements (IREs) and the cytosolic IRE-binding proteins IRP-1 and IRP-2. Three different signals are known to elicit IRP-1 activity and thus regulate IRE-containing mRNAs: iron deficiency, nitric oxide (NO), and the reactive oxygen intermediate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this(More)
BACKGROUND Although the gene for hereditary haemochromatosis has been cloned, the mechanism by which iron uptake is inappropriately increased in this disorder is unclear. Iron absorption is regulated by the duodenal metal transporter, DMT-1, also called NRAMP-2. We investigated the expression of NRAMP-2 in patients with hereditary haemochromatosis. (More)
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a multi-functional cytokine, which exerts erythropoietic effects but also carries anti-apoptotic and immune-modulatory activities upon binding to two distinct receptors which are expressed on erythroid, parenchymal and immune cells, respectively. Whereas EPO ameliorates hemolytic anemia in malaria or trypanosomiasis and improves the(More)