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BACKGROUND Iron deficiency is a common and undertreated problem in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIM To develop an online tool to support treatment choice at the patient-specific level. METHODS Using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method (RUAM), a European expert panel assessed the appropriateness of treatment regimens for a variety of clinical(More)
In order to examine the regulatory effects of major Th1-derived cytokines, such as IL-12, and Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, on the formation of neopterin and degradation of tryptophan, two metabolic pathways induced by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in human monocytes/macrophages, we investigated the human monocytic cell line THP-1, primary human(More)
Weight loss is the main symptom of so-called tumor cachexia. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying cachexia are poorly understood; however, it appears that enhanced formation of cytokines such as interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are involved. In 94 patients suffering from hematological neoplasias we compared body weight changes with serum(More)
Macrophages and neutrophils play a decisive role in host responses to intracellular bacteria including the agent of tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis as they represent the forefront of innate immune defense against bacterial invaders. At the same time, these phagocytes are also primary targets of intracellular bacteria to be abused as host(More)
Anemia is frequently observed in patients suffering from chronic inflammatory disorders. Recent in vitro data suggest that Th2 cytokines, such as IL-10, could be involved in its pathogenesis. We analyzed 1) changes in hemoglobin values in 329 patients with chronic active Crohn's disease receiving the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 as part of a randomized,(More)
Erythropoietin (EPO) is the principal cytokine regulating erythropoiesis through its receptor, EPOR. Interestingly, EPORs are also found on immune cells with incompletely understood functions. Here, we show that EPO inhibits the induction of proinflammatory genes including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase in activated(More)
BACKGROUND Mild iron overload is frequently observed in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). OBJECTIVE We aimed to study putative pathways underlying iron accumulation in NAFLD. DESIGN Hepatic and duodenal expression of critical iron molecules in NAFLD patients with (n = 32) and without (n = 29) iron overload, hereditary hemochromatosis (n = 10),(More)
Production of minute concentrations of superoxide (O2(*-)) and nitrogen monoxide (nitric oxide, NO*) plays important roles in several aspects of cellular signaling and metabolic regulation. However, in an inflammatory environment, the concentrations of these radicals can drastically increase and the antioxidant defenses may become overwhelmed. Thus,(More)
Intestinal iron absorption is regulated by the body's demands for iron. Identification of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1) has improved our understanding of iron transport across the intestinal epithelium. Although DMT1 and FPN1 mRNA bear an iron responsive element (IRE) within its untranslated regions which should cause(More)