Guenter W. Gross

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Implanting electrical devices in the nervous system to treat neural diseases is becoming very common. The success of these brain-machine interfaces depends on the electrodes that come into contact with the neural tissue. Here we show that conventional tungsten and stainless steel wire electrodes can be coated with carbon nanotubes using electrochemical(More)
Mammalian spinal neuronal networks growing on arrays of photoetched electrodes in culture provide a highly stable system for the long-term monitoring of multichannel, spontaneous or evoked electrophysiological activity. In the absence of the homeostatic control mechanisms of the central nervous system, these networks show remarkable sensitivities to minute(More)
Neurons, by virtue of intrinsic electrophysiological mechanisms, represent transducers that report the dynamics of cell death, receptor-ligand interactions, alterations in metabolism, and generic membrane perforation processes. In cell culture, mammalian neurons form fault-tolerant, spontaneously active systems with great sensitivity to their chemical(More)
Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) have been in use over the past decade and a half to study multiple aspects of electrically excitable cells. In particular, MEAs have been applied to explore the pharmacological and toxicological effects of numerous compounds on spontaneous activity of neuronal and cardiac cell networks. The MEA system enables simultaneous(More)
We apply an information-theoretic treatment of action potential time series measured with microelectrode arrays to estimate the connectivity of mammalian neuronal cell assemblies grown in vitro. We infer connectivity between two neurons via the measurement of the mutual information between their spike trains. In addition we measure higher-point(More)
Neuronal assemblies within the nervous system produce electrical activity that can be recorded in terms of action potential patterns. Such patterns provide a sensitive endpoint to detect effects of a variety of chemical and physical perturbations. They are a function of synaptic changes and do not necessarily involve structural alterations. In vitro(More)
We investigated the probability of survival of mouse spinal neurons in monolayer cultures after transection lesions of dendrites made within 400 microns of the perikarya. Based on a total of 650 lesioned neurons, the following observations were made. First, neuronal survival is a function of lesion distance from the perikaryon and of process diameter at the(More)
All higher order central nervous systems exhibit spontaneous neural activity, though the purpose and mechanistic origin of such activity remains poorly understood. We quantitatively analyzed the ignition and spread of collective spontaneous electrophysiological activity in networks of cultured cortical neurons growing on microelectrode arrays. Leader(More)
Monolayer networks, obtained from murine spinal cord tissue and grown on a matrix of 64 photo-etched, indium-tin oxide (ITO) microelectrodes, can be electrically stimulated through such thin-film recording electrodes. Multichannel coordinated network activity can be evoked and spontaneous network activity can be modified by generation of additional,(More)