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The in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay, hereafter the Comet assay, can be used to investigate the genotoxicity of industrial chemicals, biocides, agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals. The major advantages of this assay include the relative ease of application to any tissue of interest, the detection of multiple classes of DNA damage and the(More)
At a recent ECVAM workshop considering ways to reduce the frequency of irrelevant positive results in mammalian cell genotoxicity tests [D. Kirkland, S. Pfuhler, D. Tweats, M. Aardema, R. Corvi, F. Darroudi, A. Elhajouji, H.-R. Glatt, P. Hastwell, M. Hayashi, P. Kasper, S. Kirchner, A. Lynch, D. Marzin, D. Maurici, J.-R. Meunier, L. Müller, G. Nohynek, J.(More)
Formaldehyde (FA) is genotoxic in vitro in cultured mammalian cells. When FA reaches the nuclear DNA, it forms DNA-protein cross-links (DPX). Incomplete repair of DPX can lead to the formation of mutations, in particular chromosome mutations and micronuclei (MN) in proliferating cells. Due to its high reactivity, FA leads primarily to local genotoxic(More)
As part of the Fourth International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT), held 9-10 September 2005 in San Francisco, California, an expert working group on the Comet assay was convened to review and discuss some of the procedures and methods recommended in previous documents. Particular attention was directed at the in vivo rodent, alkaline (pH >13)(More)
Forty-one volunteers (male non-smokers) were exposed to formaldehyde (FA) vapours for 4 h/day over a period of five working days under strictly controlled conditions. For each exposure day, different exposure concentrations were used in a random order ranging from 0 up to 0.7 p.p.m. At concentrations of 0.3 and 0.4 p.p.m., four peaks of 0.6 or 0.8 p.p.m.(More)
Formaldehyde (FA) was tested for its genotoxicity in human blood cultures. We treated blood samples at the start of the culture to follow FA-induced DNA damage (DNA-protein crosslinks, DPX), its repair and its genetic consequences in form of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and micronuclei (MN). Our results clearly indicate that DPX (determined by the comet(More)
Male Fischer-344 rats were exposed to formaldehyde (FA) by inhalation for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). Groups of six rats each were exposed to the target concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 10 and 15 ppm. Potential systemic genotoxic effects were investigated as part of a comprehensive study on local and systemic toxic and genotoxic effects. For this(More)
The in vivo comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis assay) in its alkaline version (pH >13) is being increasingly used in genotoxicity testing of substances such as industrial chemicals, biocides, agrochemicals, food additives and pharmaceuticals. Recommendations for an appropriate performance of the test using OECD guidelines for other in vivo(More)
The present study examined the effects of a short-distance triathlon on the induction of DNA effects in peripheral leukocytes, urinary excretion of oxidized DNA bases, and frequency of micronuclei in lymphocytes of human volunteers. Induction of DNA effects was measured as increased DNA migration using the alkaline comet assay. Increased DNA migration was(More)
Studies for SCE induction are frequently performed on human blood cultures. Either whole blood cultures (WBC) or purified lymphocyte cultures (PLC) are employed. However, it has been shown that fundamental differences with respect to metabolic activity exist between these two systems. In order to further characterize the whole blood culture and the purified(More)