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Current threats to biodiversity, such as climate change, are thought to alter the within-species genetic diversity among microhabitats in highly heterogeneous alpine environments. Assessing the spatial organization and dynamics of genetic diversity within species can help to predict the responses of organisms to environmental change. In this study, we(More)
Alpine dwarf shrub communities are phenologically linked with snowmelt timing, so early spring exposure may increase risk of freezing damage during early development, and consequently reduce seasonal growth. We examined whether environmental factors (duration of snow cover, elevation) influenced size and the vulnerability of shrubs to spring freezing along(More)
Fruiting is typically considered to massively burden the seasonal carbon budget of trees. The cost of reproduction has therefore been suggested as a proximate factor explaining observed mast-fruiting patterns. Here, we used a large-scale, continuous 13C labeling of mature, deciduous trees in a temperate Swiss forest to investigate to what extent fruit(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Masting, i.e. synchronous but highly variable interannual seed production, is a strong sink for carbon and nutrients. It may, therefore, compete with vegetative growth. It is currently unknown whether increased atmospheric CO(2) concentrations will affect the carbon balance (or that of other nutrients) between reproduction and vegetative(More)
Reduced growth but high NSC after severe defoliation of evergreen trees can be explained by three, non-exclusive processes: critical loss of non-C reserves, hormonal changes, and prioritisation of C storage over growth. In an attempt to simulate processionary moth impact on pines, we explored the extent to which late winter defoliation affects growth and(More)
Phenological events, such as the initiation and the end of seasonal growth, are thought to be under strong evolutionary control because of their influence on tree fitness. Although numerous studies highlighted genetic differentiation in phenology among populations from contrasting climates, it remains unclear whether local adaptation could restrict(More)
Climate change is altering spring snowmelt patterns in alpine and arctic ecosystems, and these changes may alter plant phenology, growth and reproduction. To predict how alpine plants respond to shifts in snowmelt timing, we need to understand trait plasticity, its effects on growth and reproduction, and the degree to which plants experience a home-site(More)
In orthodontics dysfunctions of the tongue are discussed as a factor in the development of malocclusion. A new objective method for examining tongue movement is the electromagnetic articulography (EMA). This enables movements of the tongue to be followed using the principle of inductive distance measurements. A helmet made of acrylic material serves as a(More)
We present data on velar speech movements examined by electromagnetic articulography (EMA), a tool for the study of velar kinematics. Based on investigations on 22 normal German subjects (15 male, 7 female), movement paths of the velum using a sensor positioned on the midsagittal anterior surface were recorded using a series of high and low vowel VCV(More)
Objective examination of velopharyngeal (VP) sphincter function has been described based on multiple methods. Videofluoroscopy and videoendoscopy represent today's clinical standard. A new concept of analysis of VP functioning is described using electromagnetic articulography (EMA) for midsagittal measurement of velar movement and videoendoscopy in a(More)