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We studied the role of PDZ proteins GRIP, ABP, and PICK1 in GluR2 AMPA receptor trafficking. An epitope-tagged MycGluR2 subunit, when expressed in hippocampal cultured neurons, was specifically targeted to the synaptic surface. With the mutant MycGluR2delta1-10, which lacks the PDZ binding site, the overall dendritic intracellular transport and the synaptic(More)
Genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicator proteins (FCIPs) are promising tools to study calcium dynamics in many activity-dependent molecular and cellular processes. Great hopes-for the measurement of population activity, in particular-have therefore been placed on calcium indicators derived from the green fluorescent protein and their expression in(More)
In order to observe and quantify long-range neuronal connections in intact mouse brain by light microscopy, it is first necessary to clear the brain, thus suppressing refractive-index variations. Here we describe a method that clears the brain and preserves the signal from proteinaceous fluorophores using a pH-adjusted non-aqueous index-matching medium.(More)
Cellular resolution three-dimensional (3D) visualization of defined, fluorescently labeled long-range neuronal networks in the uncut adult mouse brain has been elusive. Here, a virus-based strategy is described that allowed fluorescent labeling of centrifugally projecting neuronal populations in the ventral forebrain and their directly, monosynaptically(More)
T cells are considered to be unresponsive to testosterone due to the absence of androgen receptors (AR). Here, we demonstrate the testosterone responsiveness of murine splenic T cells in vitro as well as the presence of unconventional cell surface receptors for testosterone and classical intracellular AR. Binding sites for testosterone on the surface of(More)
Collagen, as the most abundant protein in the human body, determines the unique physiological and optical properties of the connective tissues including cornea and sclera. The ultrastructure of collagen, which conventionally can only be resolved by electron microscopy, now can be probed by optical second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging. SHG imaging(More)
Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide elaborated by the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei. Magnocellular OT neurons of these nuclei innervate numerous forebrain regions and release OT into the blood from the posterior pituitary. The PVN also harbors parvocellular OT cells that project to the brainstem and spinal cord, but their(More)
The Fura-2 method is used to examine a possible action of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on [Ca2+]i of splenic T cells isolated from female C57BL/10 mice. E2 concentrations between 10 fM and 10 nM induce a rapid and dose-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i due to Ca2+ influx and release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Ca2+ influx is mediated by Ca2+ channels which are(More)
Lactobacillus casei, which shows antitumoral activity mediated by the stimulation of cellular defence mechanisms, and its peptidoglycan were tested for their ability to inhibit in vitro the viability of various murine (Yac-1, P815, Ehrlich ascites tumor, mammary carcinoma) and human (K562, KB) tumor cell lines through primary cytotoxic activity. Treatment(More)
The lifetime of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) is increased from <1 day to >1 week during early postnatal development. However, the exact timing of AChR stabilization is not known, and its correlation to the concurrent embryonic to adult AChR channel conversion, NMJ remodeling, and neuromuscular diseases is(More)