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Advances in donor matching and immunosuppressive therapies have decreased the prevalence of acute rejection of cardiac grafts; however, chronic rejection remains a significant obstacle for long-term allograft survival. While initiating elements of anti-allograft immune responses have been identified, the linkage between these factors and the ultimate(More)
While studying Th responses induced by cardiac transplantation, we observed that mice deficient in the Th1 transcription factor T-bet (T-bet(-/-)) mount both Th1 and Th17 responses, whereas wild-type recipients mount only Th1 responses. Cells producing both IFN-gamma and IL-17 were readily detectable within the rejecting graft of T-bet(-/-) recipients, but(More)
OBJECTIVE It is hypothesized that a male predominance, similar to that in humans, persists in a rodent model of experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) via alterations in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). METHODS AND RESULTS Group I experiments were as follows: elastase perfusion of the infrarenal aorta was performed in male (M) and female (F) rats.(More)
CD4(+) T cells that respond to indirectly presented alloantigen have been shown to mediate chronic rejection, however, the role of the indirect pathway in acute rejection has yet to be completely elucidated. To this end, BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice were depleted of CD8(+) T cells and transplanted with class II transactivator (CIITA)-deficient cardiac allografts,(More)
Disrupting the CD40-CD40L costimulation pathway promotes allograft acceptance in many settings. Herein, we demonstrate that stimulating OX40 overrides cardiac allograft acceptance induced by disrupting CD40-CD40L interactions. This effect of OX40 stimulation was dependent on CD4(+) T cells, which in turn provided help for CD8(+) T cells and B cells.(More)
IL-6 mediates numerous immunologic effects relevant to transplant rejection; however, its specific contributions to these processes are not fully understood. To this end, we neutralized IL-6 in settings of acute cardiac allograft rejection associated with either CD8(+) or CD4(+) cell-dominant responses. In a setting of CD8(+) cell-dominant graft rejection,(More)
OBJECTIVE This investigation was undertaken to determine whether intrinsic or regional factors at different anatomic sites of the aorta affect expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). METHODS Aortas from Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 22) were divided into arch, descending thoracic, and(More)
BACKGROUND In humans, there is a 4:1 male:female ratio in the incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) is an important upstream regulator of several enzymes involved in AAA formation, including the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a gender difference between males(More)
It is hypothesized that differential AKT phosphorylation between sexes is important in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. Male C57BL/6 mice undergoing elastase treatment showed a typical AAA phenotype (80% over baseline, P < 0.001) and significantly increased phosphorylated AKT-308 (p308) and total-AKT (T-AKT) at day 14 compared with female mice.(More)
OBJECTIVE Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are common, but their exact pathogenesis remains unknown and no specific medical therapies are available. We sought to evaluate interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) in an experimental AAA model to identify novel therapeutic targets for AAA treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS IL-1β mRNA and(More)