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BACKGROUND In humans, there is a 4:1 male:female ratio in the incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) is an important upstream regulator of several enzymes involved in AAA formation, including the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a gender difference between males(More)
CD4(+) T cells that respond to indirectly presented alloantigen have been shown to mediate chronic rejection, however, the role of the indirect pathway in acute rejection has yet to be completely elucidated. To this end, BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice were depleted of CD8(+) T cells and transplanted with class II transactivator (CIITA)-deficient cardiac allografts,(More)
OBJECTIVE It is hypothesized that a male predominance, similar to that in humans, persists in a rodent model of experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) via alterations in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). METHODS AND RESULTS Group I experiments were as follows: elastase perfusion of the infrarenal aorta was performed in male (M) and female (F) rats.(More)
It is hypothesized that differential AKT phosphorylation between sexes is important in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. Male C57BL/6 mice undergoing elastase treatment showed a typical AAA phenotype (80% over baseline, P < 0.001) and significantly increased phosphorylated AKT-308 (p308) and total-AKT (T-AKT) at day 14 compared with female mice.(More)
While studying Th responses induced by cardiac transplantation, we observed that mice deficient in the Th1 transcription factor T-bet (T-bet(-/-)) mount both Th1 and Th17 responses, whereas wild-type recipients mount only Th1 responses. Cells producing both IFN-gamma and IL-17 were readily detectable within the rejecting graft of T-bet(-/-) recipients, but(More)
Chronic allograft rejection (CR) is the main barrier to long-term transplant survival. CR is a progressive disease defined by interstitial fibrosis, vascular neointimal development, and graft dysfunction. The underlying mechanisms responsible for CR remain poorly defined. TGFbeta has been implicated in promoting fibrotic diseases including CR, but is(More)
Advances in donor matching and immunosuppressive therapies have decreased the prevalence of acute rejection of cardiac grafts; however, chronic rejection remains a significant obstacle for long-term allograft survival. While initiating elements of anti-allograft immune responses have been identified, the linkage between these factors and the ultimate(More)
The serine proteases, along with their inhibitor plasmin activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), have been shown to play a role in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. The aim of this study is to determine if PAI-1 may be a protective factor for AAA formation and partially responsible for the gender difference observed in AAAs. Male and female wild-type (WT)(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of these experiments was to test the hypothesis that dietary phytoestrogens would diminish experimental aortic aneurysm formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Six-wk-old C57BL/6 mice were divided into groups, fed either a diet with minimal phytoestrogen content or a regular commercial rodent diet with high phytoestrogen content for 2 wk.(More)
OBJECTIVE The protective effects of female gender on the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) have been attributed to anti-inflammatory effects of estrogen. Estrogen synthesis is dependent on the enzyme aromatase, which is located both centrally in the ovaries and peripherally in adipose tissue, bone, and vascular smooth muscle cells. It is(More)