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In this paper we present experimental data that shows the dependence of copper dishing and oxide erosion on pitch and pattern density, as well as on polishing process parameters including table speed, down force, and process sequence. Specifically, the data shows that the degree of dishing and erosion strongly depends on both the processing parameters and(More)
Koi carps frequently swim in burst-and-coast style, which consists of a burst phase and a coast phase. We quantify the swimming kinematics and the flow patterns generated by the carps in burst-and-coast swimming. In the burst phase, the carps burst in two modes: in the first, the tail beats for at least one cycle (multiple tail-beat mode); in the second,(More)
Efficient swimming of biologically carangiform robotic fish has been investigated by using a novel experimental method. The laboratory robotic fish model, which follows an exact replica of Saithe, is self-propelled on a servo towing system. The forward towing speed is determined by the fluid force acting on the robotic fish, as the fish undulates its body(More)
Spontaneous swimming behaviors of koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi were recorded using a video tracking system. Routine single-beat turns were selected from the recorded image sequences for kinematic and hydrodynamic analysis. As with C-starts, the turns can be divided into two stages (stage 1 and stage 2), based on kinematics. Stage 1 involves a bend to one(More)
In this paper, techniques of force-feedback control are applied to the hydrodynamic study of a laboratory robotic fish. The experimental apparatus which allows a robotic model to accelerate from rest to a steady speed under self-propelled conditions is clearly described. In the current apparatus, the robotic fish is mounted on a servo guide rail system and(More)
Optical frequency combs have become an essential tool for distance metrology, showing great advantages compared with traditional laser interferometry. However, there is not yet an appropriate method for air refractive index correction to ensure the high performance of such techniques when they are applied in air. In this study, we developed a novel(More)
Hydrodynamic investigation of carangiform robotic fish has been carried out by using a novel experimental method. The laboratory robotic fish model which follows an exact replica of Saithe, is self-propelled on a servo towing system. The forward towing speed is determined by the fluid force acting upon the robotic fish, as the fish undulate its body in the(More)
Dual-comb system parameters have significant impacts on the ranging accuracy. We present a theoretical model and a numerical simulation method for the parameter optimization of a dual-comb ranging system. With this method we investigate the impacts of repetition rate difference, repetition rate, and carrier-envelope-offset frequency on the ranging accuracy.(More)