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Magnetic Random Access Memory (MRAM) has been considered as a promising memory technology due to many attractive properties. Integrating MRAM with CMOS logic may incur extra manufacture cost, due to its hybrid magnetic-CMOS fabrication process. Stacking MRAM on top of CMOS logics using 3D integration is a way to minimize this cost overhead. In this paper,(More)
Convolutional neural network (CNN) has been widely employed for image recognition because it can achieve high accuracy by emulating behavior of optic nerves in living creatures. Recently, rapid growth of modern applications based on deep learning algorithms has further improved research and implementations. Especially, various accelerators for deep CNN have(More)
Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) is a promising memory technology, which has fast read access, high density, and non-volatility. Using 3D heterogeneous in-tegrations, it becomes feasible and cost-efficient to stack MRAM atop conventional chip multiprocessors (CMPs). However, one disadvantage of MRAM is its long write la-tency and its high write energy.(More)
Phase change memory (PCM) is one of the most promising technology among emerging non-volatile random access memory technologies. Implementing a cache memory using PCM provides many benefits such as high density, non-volatility, low leakage power, and high immunity to soft error. However, its disadvantages such as high write latency, high write energy, and(More)
Emerging memory technologies such as STT-RAM, PCRAM, and resistive RAM are being explored as potential replacements to existing on-chip caches or main memories for future multi-core architectures. This is due to the many attractive features these memory technologies posses: high density, low leakage, and non-volatility. However, the latency and energy(More)
In recent years, many systems have employed NAND flash memory as storage devices because of its advantages of higher performance (compared to the traditional hard disk drive), high-density, random-access, increasing capacity , and falling cost. On the other hand, the performance of NAND flash memory is limited by its " erase-before-write " requirement.(More)
In recent years, non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies have emerged as candidates for future universal memory. NVMs generally have advantages such as low leakage power, high density, and fast read spead. At the same time, NVMs also have disadvantages. For example, NVMs often have asymetric read and write speed and energy cost, which poses new challenges(More)
Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) have become ubiquitous for general purpose applications due to their tremendous computing power. Initially, GPUs only employ scratchpad memory as on-chip memory. Though scratchpad memory benefits many applications, it is not ideal for those general purpose applications with irregular memory accesses. Hence, GPU vendors have(More)
Phase Change Random Access Memory (PRAM) has great potential as the replacement of DRAM as main memory, due to its advantages of high density, non-volatility, fast read speed, and excellent scalability. However, poor endurance and high write energy appear to be the challenges to be tackled before PRAM can be adopted as main memory. In order to mitigate(More)