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Convolutional neural network (CNN) has been widely employed for image recognition because it can achieve high accuracy by emulating behavior of optic nerves in living creatures. Recently, rapid growth of modern applications based on deep learning algorithms has further improved research and implementations. Especially, various accelerators for deep CNN have(More)
Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) is a promising memory technology, which has fast read access, high density, and non-volatility. Using 3D heterogeneous integrations, it becomes feasible and cost-efficient to stack MRAM atop conventional chip multiprocessors (CMPs). However, one disadvantage of MRAM is its long write latency and its high write energy. In(More)
Phase change memory (PCM) is one of the most promising technology among emerging non-volatile random access memory technologies. Implementing a cache memory using PCM provides many benefits such as high density, non-volatility, low leakage power, and high immunity to soft error. However, its disadvantages such as high write latency, high write energy, and(More)
Magnetic Random Access Memory (MRAM) has been considered as a promising memory technology due to many attractive properties. Integrating MRAM with CMOS logic may incur extra manufacture cost, due to its hybrid magnetic-CMOS fabrication process. Stacking MRAM on top of CMOS logics using 3D integration is a way to minimize this cost overhead. In this paper,(More)
Emerging memory technologies such as STT-RAM, PCRAM, and resistive RAM are being explored as potential replacements to existing on-chip caches or main memories for future multi-core architectures. This is due to the many attractive features these memory technologies posses: high density, low leakage, and non-volatility. However, the latency and energy(More)
Improving the vulnerability to soft errors is one of the important design goals for future architecture design of Chip-MultiProcessors (CMPs). In this study, we explore the soft error characteristics of CMPs with 3D stacked NonVolatile Memory (NVM), in particular, the Spin-Transfer Torque Random Access Memory (STT-RAM), whose cells are immune to(More)
Recently, general-purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) have been widely used to accelerate computing in various applications. To store the contexts of thousands of concurrent threads on a GPU, a large static random-access memory (SRAM)-based register file is employed. Due to high leakage power of SRAM, the register file consumes 20% to 40% of the(More)
In recent years, non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies have emerged as candidates for future universal memory. NVMs generally have advantages such as low leakage power, high density, and fast read spead. At the same time, NVMs also have disadvantages. For example, NVMs often have asymetric read and write speed and energy cost, which poses new challenges(More)
Phase-change memory (PCM) is one of the most promising technologies among emerging non-volatile memories. Recently, the technology of multi-level cell (MLC) for PCM has been developed and a high capacity memory system can be implemented by storing multiple bits in a cell. However, programming MLC PCM involves the program-and-verify scheme. Thus, the energy(More)