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Cellulose synthase-like (CSL) proteins of glycosyltransferase family 2 (GT2) are believed to be involved in the biosynthesis of cell-wall polymers. The CSL D sub-family (CSLD) is common to all plants, but the functions of CSLDs remain to be elucidated. We report here an in-depth characterization of a narrow leaf and dwarf1 (nd1) rice mutant that shows(More)
In an Arabidopsis thaliana forward genetic screen aimed at identifying mutants with altered structures of their hemicellulose xyloglucan (axy mutants) using oligosaccharide mass profiling, two nonallelic mutants (axy4-1 and axy4-2) that have a 20 to 35% reduction in xyloglucan O-acetylation were identified. Mapping of the mutation in axy4-1 identified AXY4,(More)
Although applied over extremely short timescales, artificial selection has dramatically altered the form, physiology, and life history of cultivated plants. We have used RNAseq to define both gene sequence and expression divergence between cultivated tomato and five related wild species. Based on sequence differences, we detect footprints of positive(More)
We have characterized a β-glucuronosyltransferase (AtGlcAT14A) from Arabidopsis thaliana that is involved in the biosynthesis of type II arabinogalactan (AG). This enzyme belongs to the Carbohydrate Active Enzyme database glycosyltransferase family 14 (GT14). The protein was localized to the Golgi apparatus when transiently expressed in Nicotiana(More)
Shoot meristems of plants are composed of stem cells that are continuously replenished through a classical feedback circuit involving the homeobox WUSCHEL (WUS) gene and the CLAVATA (CLV) gene signaling pathway. In CLV signaling, the CLV1 receptor complex is bound by CLV3, a secreted peptide modified with sugars. However, the pathway responsible for(More)
One major component of plant cell walls is a diverse group of polysaccharides, the hemicelluloses. Hemicelluloses constitute roughly one-third of the wall biomass and encompass the heteromannans, xyloglucan, heteroxylans, and mixed-linkage glucan. The fine structure of these polysaccharides, particularly their substitution, varies depending on the plant(More)
Membrane trafficking between the plasma membrane (PM) and intracellular compartments is an important process that regulates the deposition and metabolism of cell wall polysaccharides. Dynamin-related proteins (DRPs), which function in membrane tubulation and vesiculation are closely associated with cell wall biogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms by(More)
Golgi-localized nucleotide sugar transporters (NSTs) are considered essential for the biosynthesis of wall polysaccharides and glycoproteins based on their characteristic transport of a large number of nucleotide sugars to the Golgi lumen. The lack of NST mutants in plants has prevented evaluation of this hypothesis in plants. A previously undescribed Golgi(More)
Cellulose synthase (CESA) is a critical catalytic subunit of the cellulose synthase complex responsible for glucan chain elongation. Our knowledge about how CESA functions is still very limited. Here, we report the functional characterization of a rice mutant, brittle culm11, that shows growth retardation and dramatically reduced plant strength. Map-based(More)