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Purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) are closely associated with excitotoxicity and nociception. Inhibition of P2X7R activation has been considered as a potentially useful strategy to improve recovery from spinal cord injury and reduce inflammatory damage to trauma. The physiological functions of P2X7Rs, however, are poorly understood, even though(More)
P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) appear to participate in producing nociceptive responses after nerve injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the receptor-mediated nociception in the neuropathic state remain unclear. Using spared nerve injury (SNI) rats, we found that allodynic and nocifensive (flinch) behavioral responses developed(More)
It has been known for some time that the somata of neurons in sensory ganglia respond to electrical or chemical stimulation and release transmitters in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The function of the somatic release has not been well delineated. A unique characteristic of the ganglia is that each neuronal soma is tightly enwrapped by satellite glial cells(More)
BACKGROUND The purinergic P2X3 receptor (P2X3R) expressed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neuron and the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) expressed in the surrounding satellite glial cell (SGC) are two major receptors participating in neuron-SGC communication in adult DRGs. Activation of P2X7Rs was found to tonically reduce the expression of P2X3Rs in DRGs,(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetic neuropathy is a common neuropathy associated with paresthaesia and pain. The mechanisms underlying the painful conditions are not well understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the participation of purinergic P2X3 receptors in painful diabetic neuropathy. RESULTS Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of(More)
Sensitization of purinergic P2X receptors is one of the mechanisms responsible for exaggerated pain responses to inflammatory injuries. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), produced by inflamed tissues, is known to contribute to abnormal pain states. In a previous study, we showed that PGE2 increases fast inactivating ATP currents that are mediated by homomeric P2X3(More)
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a well-known inflammatory mediator that enhances the excitability of DRG neurons. Homomeric P2X3 and heteromeric P2X2/3 receptors are abundantly expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and participate in the transmission of nociceptive signals. The interaction between PGE2 and P2X3 receptors has not been well delineated. We(More)
Transferring therapeutic genes into the nociceptive system, including dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and the spinal cord, is potentially a powerful approach for the treatment of chronic pain in humans. Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs) are particularly useful in delivering foreign genes to targeted tissues because they seldom induce immune responses or(More)
BACKGROUND Phosphorylation sites in the C-terminus of mu-opioid receptors (MORs) are known to play critical roles in the receptor functions. Our understanding of their participation in opioid analgesia is mostly based on studies of opioid effects on mutant receptors expressed in in vitro preparations, including cell lines, isolated neurons and brain slices.(More)
UNLABELLED We have shown previously that using recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV) to up-regulate mu opioid receptors (muORs) in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) increases the potency of subcutaneous morphine. Here we report an improved method of introducing rAAV-muOR viral vectors into DRGs. Instead of injecting the rAAV-muOR gene directly into DRGs(More)