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Tandem 3' untranslated regions (UTRs), produced by alternative polyadenylation (APA) in the terminal exon of a gene, could have critical roles in regulating gene networks. Here we profiled tandem poly(A) events on a genome-wide scale during the embryonic development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) using a recently developed SAPAS method. We showed that 43% of(More)
Increasing amounts of genes have been shown to utilize alternative polyadenylation (APA) 3'-processing sites depending on the cell and tissue type and/or physiological and pathological conditions at the time of processing, and the construction of genome-wide database regarding APA is urgently needed for better understanding poly(A) site selection and(More)
Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys harbor a high diversity of largely unknown microorganisms. Although the phylogenetic diversity of these microorganisms has been described previously, the adaptation and metabolic potential of the microbial communities is only beginning to be revealed. A pyrosequencing approach was used to directly obtain sequences from a(More)
Both amphioxus and the sea urchin encode a complex innate immune gene repertoire in their genomes, but the composition and mechanisms of their innate immune systems, as well as the fundamental differences between two systems, remain largely unexplored. In this study, we dissect the mucosal immune complexity of amphioxus into different(More)
Vertebrates diverged from other chordates ~500 Myr ago and experienced successful innovations and adaptations, but the genomic basis underlying vertebrate origins are not fully understood. Here we suggest, through comparison with multiple lancelet (amphioxus) genomes, that ancient vertebrates experienced high rates of protein evolution, genome rearrangement(More)
Whole-genome shotgun assembly has been a long-standing issue for highly polymorphic genomes, and the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has made the issue more challenging than ever. Here we present an automated pipeline, HaploMerger, for reconstructing allelic relationships in a diploid assembly. HaploMerger combines a LASTZ-ChainNet(More)
Proteins fused to the elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) tag can be selectively separated from crude cell extract without chromatography. To avoid the interference of the ELP tag on properties of the target protein, it is necessary to remove the ELP tag from target protein by protease digestion. Therefore, an additional chromatographic purification step is(More)
Recently, receptor interacting protein (RIP)-1 has been recognized as an intracellular sensor at the crossroads of apoptosis, necroptosis, and cell survival. To reveal when this crucial molecule originated and how its function in integrating stress signals evolved, in this study we report on two RIP1 homologs in Chinese amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri(More)
In this article, we describe a high-throughput cloning method, seamless enzyme-free cloning (SEFC), which allows one-step assembly of DNA fragments in vivo via homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. In the method, the desired open reading frame (ORF) is amplified by use of ORF-specific primers with flanking sequences identical to the two ends of a(More)
Alternative polyadenylation (APA) has been found to be involved in tumorigenesis, development, and cell differentiation, as well as in the activation of several subsets of immune cells in vitro. Whether APA takes place in immune responses in vivo is largely unknown. We profiled the variation in tandem 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) in pathogen-challenged(More)