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IFN-beta currently serves as one of the major treatments for MS. Its anti-inflammatory mechanism has been reported as involving a shift in cytokine balance from Th1 to Th2 in the T-cell response against elements of the myelin sheath. In addition to the Th1 and Th2 groups, two other important pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-17 and osteopontin (OPN), are(More)
Findings of chemokines and chemokine receptors in multiple sclerosis(MS) are reviewed. MS is a T-helper type 1 (Th1) dominant condition, and Th1-associated chemokine receptors(CCR5 and CXCR3) on CD4- and CD8-positive T cells and their ligands are upregulated in the CNS of the patients with active disease. Meanwhile, Th2-associated chemokine receptors(CCR3(More)
IFN-β is a major disease-modifying agent used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Its mechanisms are complex and it has broad immunomodulatory effects on many types of immune cells. It was observed clinically that the quantity of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells increases in some MS patients treated with IFN-β. In this study, we show that(More)
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a new cytokine of interleukin-1 family, whose specific receptor is ST2. IL-33 exerts its functions via its target cells and plays different roles in diseases. ST2 deletion and exclusion of IL-33/ST2 axis are accompanied by enhanced susceptibility to dominantly T cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune diseases. It has been reported(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. Although major therapeutic advances have been made in recent years, there is no cure for the disease. Current medications mainly reduce inflammation in order to relieve pain and slow joint damage, but many have potentially serious side effects. Therefore, to(More)
To investigate immunoregulatory mechanisms of Sertoli cells in the testis in vitro and in vivo, we utilized our well-characterized Ureaplasma Urealyticum (UU)-induced model. We investigated the expressions of IL-1, IL-6, TGF-, FasL and ZNF265 at the first, second and third weeks post-infection. During recovery from inflammation and with the help of(More)
Mast cells are important in innate immune system. They have been appreciated as potent contributors to allergic reaction. However, increasing evidence implicates the important role of mast cells in autoimmune disease like rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Here we review the current stage of knowledge about mast cells in autoimmune diseases.
Multiple sclerosis is the most common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. It is believed that the increased migration of autoreactive lymphocytes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may be responsible for axonal demyelination of neurons. In this review, we discuss microRNAs participating in the pathological processes of MS, including(More)
The aim of this study is to determine whether the regulatory role of T cell vaccination (TCV) is through inhibition of Th1/Th17/Tfh and production of autoantibodies on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). First, CIA mice were treated with TCV. After disease onset, the incidence and severity of change in joint histopathology were evaluated. Mice in the(More)
OBJECTIVE To expand upon the role of iguratimod (T-614) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we investigated whether the Th1, Th17, follicular helper T cells (Tfh), and regulatory T cells (Treg) imbalance could be reversed by iguratimod and the clinical implications of this reversal. METHODS In this trial, 74 patients were randomized into(More)
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