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Deciphering the interneuronal circuitry is central to understanding brain functions, yet it remains a challenging task in neurobiology. Using simultaneous quadruple-octuple in vitro and dual in vivo whole-cell recordings, we found two previously unknown interneuronal circuits that link cortical layer 1-3 (L1-3) interneurons and L5 pyramidal neurons in the(More)
Daily 24-hour PM 2.5 samples were collected continuously from January 1 to December 31, 2010. Elemental concentrations from Al to Pb were obtained using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. This was the first full year continuous daily PM 2.5 elemental composition dataset in Beijing. Source apportionment analysis was conducted on this dataset(More)
Interneurons play a key role in cortical function and dysfunction, yet organization of cortical interneuronal circuitry remains poorly understood. Cortical Layer 1 (L1) contains 2 general GABAergic interneuron groups, namely single bouquet cells (SBCs) and elongated neurogliaform cells (ENGCs). SBCs predominantly make unidirectional inhibitory connections(More)
CaV3.2 T-type calcium channels, encoded by CACNA1H, are expressed throughout the brain, yet their general function remains unclear. We discovered that CaV3.2 channels control NMDA-sensitive glutamatergic receptor (NMDA-R)-mediated transmission and subsequent NMDA-R-dependent plasticity of AMPA-R-mediated transmission at rat central synapses. Interestingly,(More)
Deciphering neuronal circuitry is central to understanding brain function and dysfunction, yet it remains a daunting task. To facilitate the dissection of neuronal circuits, a process requiring functional analysis of synaptic connections and morphological identification of interconnected neurons, we present here a method for stable simultaneous octuple(More)
Activity-dependent modifications of excitatory synapses contribute to synaptic maturation and plasticity, and are critical for learning and memory. Consequently, impairments in synapse formation or synaptic transmission are thought to be responsible for several types of mental disabilities. BRAG1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small(More)
Aqueous dilute acid pretreatments of corncob were conducted using cylindrical pressure vessels in an oil bath. Pretreatments were conducted in a temperature range of 160-190 °C with acid-solution-to-solid-corncob ratio of 2. The acid concentration (v/v) in the pretreatment solution was varied from 0% to 0.7%, depending on temperature. This gives acid charge(More)
To investigate heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with masked hypertension (MH), participants were classified based on clinic and 24-h ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring: essential hypertension (EH, n = 40; MH, n = 36) and normotension (NT, n = 48). The HRV parameters were observed using a 24-h Holter monitor. Compared with NT controls, the(More)