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In the developing nervous system, Id2 (inhibitor of DNA binding 2, also known as inhibitor of differentiation 2) enhances cell proliferation, promotes tumour progression and inhibits the activity of neurogenic basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome and its activator Cdh1 (APC/C(Cdh1)) restrains axonal(More)
BACKGROUND Regulation of immune responses is critical for controlling inflammation and disruption of this process can lead to tissue damage. We reported that CXCL13 was induced in fallopian tube tissue following C. trachomatis infection. Here, we examined the influence of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis in chlamydial genital infection. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL(More)
Escherichia coli CMP-NeuAc synthetase (EC 2.7.7.43) catalyzes the synthesis of CMP-NeuAc from CTP and NeuAc, which is essential for the formation of capsule polysialylate for strain K1. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of E. coli CMP-NeuAc synthetase with those from other bacterial species revealed that the conserved motifs were located in its N(More)
Mechanisms that maintain cancer stem cells are crucial to tumour progression. The ID2 protein supports cancer hallmarks including the cancer stem cell state. HIFα transcription factors, most notably HIF2α (also known as EPAS1), are expressed in and required for maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the pathways that are engaged by ID2 or drive(More)
BACKGROUND Generation of robust cell-mediated immune responses at mucosal surfaces while reducing overall inflammation is a primary goal for vaccination. Here we report the use of a recombinant nanoparticle as a vaccine delivery platform against mucosal infections requiring T cell-mediated immunity for eradication. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We(More)
We have identified a CD8⁺CXCR5⁺ T cell that prevents the development of oviduct dilation following C. muridarum genital infection. Phenotypic studies show that CD8⁺CXCR5⁺ cells express markers of T regulatory cells (FoxP3, CD25, and GITR) but do not express a necessary component of cytotoxic cells (perforin). Cxcr5⁻/⁻ mice have significantly lower numbers(More)
The role of P450 IA2 in the hydroxylation of acetanilide was examined using an inhibitory monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1-7-1 and vaccinia cDNA expression producing murine P450 IA1 (mIA1), murine P450 IA2 (mIA2), or human P450 IA2 (hIA2). Acetanilide hydroxylase (AcOH) activity was measured using an HPLC method with more than 500-fold greater sensitivity than(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand can induce apoptosis in many tumor cell lines. This apoptotic effect is mediated by interaction of TRAIL and its receptors, which include Death Receptor 4 (DR4) and Death Receptor 5 (DR5). Some antibodies to DR4 or DR5 do not have anti-tumor ability without cross-linking but exhibit anti-tumor ability(More)
Heat shock factor 4b has been found to be closely associated with postnatal lens development. It expresses in postnatal lens epithelial and secondary fiber cells and controls the expression of small heat shock proteins which are important for lens homeostasis. However, the signal pathways underlying Hsf4b are still not completely understood. Here we present(More)
Two peptide sequences from cytochrome P450 IA2 were synthesized, coupled to ovalbumin and used as antigens to generate anti-peptide monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Antisera to both peptides reacted with rat IA2 but not the structurally similar IA1 form as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. However, antisera to both peptides detected both(More)