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In the developing nervous system, Id2 (inhibitor of DNA binding 2, also known as inhibitor of differentiation 2) enhances cell proliferation, promotes tumour progression and inhibits the activity of neurogenic basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome and its activator Cdh1 (APC/C(Cdh1)) restrains axonal(More)
Escherichia coli CMP-NeuAc synthetase (EC 2.7.7.43) catalyzes the synthesis of CMP-NeuAc from CTP and NeuAc, which is essential for the formation of capsule polysialylate for strain K1. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of E. coli CMP-NeuAc synthetase with those from other bacterial species revealed that the conserved motifs were located in its N(More)
BACKGROUND Generation of robust cell-mediated immune responses at mucosal surfaces while reducing overall inflammation is a primary goal for vaccination. Here we report the use of a recombinant nanoparticle as a vaccine delivery platform against mucosal infections requiring T cell-mediated immunity for eradication. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We(More)
During ex vivo growth as monolayer cultures, chondrocytes proliferate and undergo a process of de-differentiation. This process involves a change in morphology and a change from expression of chondrocyte-specific genes to that of genes that are normally expressed in fibroblasts. Transfer of the monolayer chondrocyte culture to three-dimensional culture(More)
Cytochrome P450s CYP2A1 and CYP2A2 exhibit 88% sequence similarity, yet CYP2A1 metabolizes testosterone almost exclusively (90%) at the 7 alpha-position, whereas CYP2A2 forms several metabolites, with 15 alpha-hydroxytestosterone as a major metabolite. One of the regions with relatively low sequence homology corresponds by sequence alignment to the I and J(More)
BACKGROUND Regulation of immune responses is critical for controlling inflammation and disruption of this process can lead to tissue damage. We reported that CXCL13 was induced in fallopian tube tissue following C. trachomatis infection. Here, we examined the influence of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis in chlamydial genital infection. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL(More)
Mechanisms that maintain cancer stem cells are crucial to tumour progression. The ID2 protein supports cancer hallmarks including the cancer stem cell state. HIFα transcription factors, most notably HIF2α (also known as EPAS1), are expressed in and required for maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the pathways that are engaged by ID2 or drive(More)
We have detected DNA binding activity for a synthetic oligonucleotide containing an Sp1 consensus sequence in nuclear extracts from human chondrocytes. Changes in the levels of Sp1 oligonucleotide binding activity were examined in nuclear extracts from freshly isolated human chondrocytes, from chondrocytes that had been cultured under conditions that(More)
We have identified a CD8⁺CXCR5⁺ T cell that prevents the development of oviduct dilation following C. muridarum genital infection. Phenotypic studies show that CD8⁺CXCR5⁺ cells express markers of T regulatory cells (FoxP3, CD25, and GITR) but do not express a necessary component of cytotoxic cells (perforin). Cxcr5⁻/⁻ mice have significantly lower numbers(More)
The role of P450 IA2 in the hydroxylation of acetanilide was examined using an inhibitory monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1-7-1 and vaccinia cDNA expression producing murine P450 IA1 (mIA1), murine P450 IA2 (mIA2), or human P450 IA2 (hIA2). Acetanilide hydroxylase (AcOH) activity was measured using an HPLC method with more than 500-fold greater sensitivity than(More)