Guang-xian Zhang

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Interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing helper T cells (T(H)17 cells) require exposure to IL-23 to become encephalitogenic, but the mechanism by which IL-23 promotes their pathogenicity is not known. Here we found that IL-23 induced production of the cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in T(H)17 cells and that GM-CSF had an essential(More)
Excessive inflammation occurs during infection and autoimmunity in mice lacking the alpha-subunit of the interleukin 27 (IL-27) receptor. The molecular mechanisms underlying this increased inflammation are incompletely understood. Here we report that IL-27 upregulated IL-10 in effector T cells that produced interferon-gamma and expressed the transcription(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) serves as a model for multiple sclerosis and is considered a CD4(+), Th1 cell-mediated autoimmune disease. IL-12 is a heterodimeric cytokine, composed of a p40 and a p35 subunit, which is thought to play an important role in the development of Th1 cells and can exacerbate EAE. We induced EAE with myelin(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is a well-characterized model of cell-mediated autoimmunity. TLRs expressed on APCs recognize microbial components and induce innate immune responses, leading to the elimination of invading infectious agents. Certain TLR agonists have been reported to have adjuvant properties in CNS autoimmune inflammatory(More)
IL-27 has been shown to play a suppressive role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as demonstrated by more severe disease in IL-27R-deficient (WSX-1(-/-)) mice. However, whether IL-27 influences the induction or effector phase of EAE is unknown. This is an important question as therapies for autoimmune diseases are generally started after(More)
Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) derived from the subventricular zone of the brain show therapeutic effects in EAE, an animal model of the chronic inflammatory neurodegenerative disease MS; however, the beneficial effects are modest. One critical weakness of aNSC therapy may be an insufficient antiinflammatory effect. Here, we demonstrate that i.v. or i.c.v.(More)
IL-12 has long been considered important in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. However, evidence from recent studies strongly supports the critical role of IL-12-related proinflammatory cytokine IL-23, but not IL-12, in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of this disease. The role of IL-23 in the CNS(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating neurological disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by activation and infiltration of leukocytes and dendritic cells into the CNS. In the initial phase of MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), peripheral macrophages infiltrate into the CNS, where, together(More)
Naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells suppress the activity of pathogenic T cells and prevent development of autoimmune responses. There is growing evidence that TLRs are involved in modulating regulatory T cell (Treg) functions both directly and indirectly. Specifically, TLR2 stimulation has been shown to reduce the suppressive(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) have been suggested to direct a type of Th differentiation through their cytokine profile, e.g., high IL-12/IL-23 for Th1 (named DC1/immunogenic DCs) and IL-10 for Th2 (DC2/tolerogenic DCs). Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 is a potent inhibitor of Stat3 and Stat4 transduction pathways for IL-23 and IL-12, respectively. We(More)