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We report the draft genome of the black cottonwood tree, Populus trichocarpa. Integration of shotgun sequence assembly with genetic mapping enabled chromosome-scale reconstruction of the genome. More than 45,000 putative protein-coding genes were identified. Analysis of the assembled genome revealed a whole-genome duplication event; about 8000 pairs of(More)
The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast mechanism can be modeled as a complex interplay between CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and CMRO2. Positive BOLD signal changes are presumably caused by CBF changes in excess of increases in CMRO2. Because this uncoupling between CBF and CMRO2 may not always be present, the magnitude of BOLD changes(More)
Measurement of cerebral arterial and venous blood volumes during increased cerebral blood flow can provide important information regarding hemodynamic regulation under normal, pathological, and neuronally active conditions. In particular, the change in venous blood volume induced by neural activity is one critical component of the blood oxygenation(More)
We have used the restriction enzyme-mediated integration insertional mutagenesis procedure to tag the Tox1 locus in the filamentous Ascomycete Cochliobolus heterostrophus. Mutations at other, unselected, loci were also identified and a high proportion (30-50%) of them were tagged. This procedure may be of general utility for simultaneously mutating and(More)
To evaluate the validity and reliability of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), 200 SWHS participants were recruited for a dietary calibration study. Study participants completed an FFQ at baseline and 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) twice per month consecutively for 12 months. At the end of the study, a(More)
Studies of marginal safe Se-intake have been carried out in a seleniferous section of China since 1985. Three areas with low, medium and high Se levels were selected for this study. The respective average daily Se-intake (mean +/- SE) was 70.5 +/- 4.8 micrograms, 194.7 +/- 22.9 micrograms and 1438.2 +/- 76.3 micrograms for males, and 62.0 +/- 3.6(More)
We investigated the local and remote vascular changes evoked by activation of the cerebellar parallel fibers (PFs). The PFs were stimulated (25-150 microA, 30 Hz) in halothane-anesthetized rats equipped with a cranial window. The changes in arteriolar and venular diameter produced by PF stimulation were measured with the use of a videomicroscopy system.(More)
Unfixed chicken erythrocyte chromatin fibers in very low salt have been imaged with a scanning force microscope operating in the tapping mode in air at ambient humidity. These images reveal a three-dimensional organization of the fibers. The planar "zig-zag" conformation is rare, and extended "beads-on-a-string" fibers are seen only in chromatin depleted of(More)
Selenosis occurs in areas of Enshi county because of the high Se content of the food. Morphological changes in finger-nails were used as the main criterion for clinical diagnosis of selenosis. Pathological nails were observed to occur almost only in adults, not at all in young children and very seldom in teenagers. Symptoms of selenosis in susceptible(More)
The dynamics of nonspecific and specific Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP)-DNA complexes have been directly observed using scanning force microscopy operating in buffer. To this end, imaging conditions had to be found in which DNA molecules were adsorbed onto mica strongly enough to be imaged, but loosely enough to be able to diffuse on the surface. In(More)