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IL-12 has long been considered important in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. However, evidence from recent studies strongly supports the critical role of IL-12-related proinflammatory cytokine IL-23, but not IL-12, in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of this disease. The role of IL-23 in the CNS(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the CNS. IDO and tryptophan metabolites have inhibitory effects on Th1 cells in EAE. For Th17 cells, IDO-mediated tryptophan deprivation and small molecule halofuginone-induced amino acid starvation response were shown to activate general control(More)
Recent findings have shown that IL-12, a key inducer of Th1 cell development, is not required in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as severe CNS inflammatory demyelination can develop in the absence of IL-12 or IL-12 responsiveness. These data raised the possibility of an immunomodulatory action of IL-12 in this disease(More)
IL-17-producing CD8(+) T cells (Tc17) appear to play a role in a range of conditions, such as autoimmunity and cancer. Thus far, Tc17 cells have been only marginally studied, resulting in a paucity of data on their biology and function. We demonstrate that Tc17 and Th17 cells share similar developmental characteristics, including the previously unknown(More)
Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) derived from the subventricular zone of the brain show therapeutic effects in EAE, an animal model of the chronic inflammatory neurodegenerative disease MS; however, the beneficial effects are modest. One critical weakness of aNSC therapy may be an insufficient antiinflammatory effect. Here, we demonstrate that i.v. or i.c.v.(More)
Demyelination is a pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that affects mainly young people in western countries. Recent studies have shown that remyelination can be accomplished by supplying demyelinated regions with myelinogenic cells or neural stem cells via transplantation. The(More)
Naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells suppress the activity of pathogenic T cells and prevent development of autoimmune responses. There is growing evidence that TLRs are involved in modulating regulatory T cell (Treg) functions both directly and indirectly. Specifically, TLR2 stimulation has been shown to reduce the suppressive(More)
IL-27 has been shown to play a suppressive role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as demonstrated by more severe disease in IL-27R-deficient (WSX-1(-/-)) mice. However, whether IL-27 influences the induction or effector phase of EAE is unknown. This is an important question as therapies for autoimmune diseases are generally started after(More)
The suppressive effect of neural stem cells (NSCs) on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), has been reported. However, the migration of NSCs to inflammatory sites was relatively slow as was the onset of rather limited clinical benefit. Lack of, or low expression of particular chemokine receptors on(More)
Glucosamine, a natural glucose derivative and an essential component of glycoproteins and proteoglycans, has been safely used to relieve osteoarthritis in humans. Recent studies have shown that glucosamine also possesses immunosuppressive properties and is effective in prolonging graft survival in mice. Whether this reagent is effective in human multiple(More)