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Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits vascular contraction by activating cGMP-dependent protein kinase I-α (PKGI-α), which causes dephosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) and vascular smooth muscle relaxation. Here we show that PKGI-α attenuates signaling by the thrombin receptor protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) through direct activation of regulator of(More)
Inflammatory cytokines, especially tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), have been shown to inhibit osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and bone formation in estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis, but the mechanism responsible remains poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to regulate MSC differentiation. Here, we(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) on osteoblastic differentiation function of human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells by measuring the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the production of osteocalcin (OCN) in vitro. DESIGN We employed a short interfering RNA (siRNA) technique to inhibit ERbeta expression in hPDL(More)
Chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis, are the most common causes of bone tissue destruction. Recently, human periodontal ligament tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PDLSCs), a population of multipotent stem cells, have been used to reconstruct tissues destroyed by chronic inflammation. However, the impact of the(More)
The existence of PDLSCs [PDL (periodontal ligament) stem cells] in PDL has been identified and such cells may function in periodontal reconstruction, including bone formation. Oestrogens/ERs (oestrogen receptors; ERα and ERβ) exert important effects in bone formation, however, the relationship between ERs and PDLSCs has not been established. In the present(More)
Autophagy is important for cell renewing for its contribution to the degradation of bulk cytoplasm, long-lived proteins, and entire organelles and its role in embryonic development is largely unknown. In our study, we investigated the function of autophagy in gastrulation of the chick embryo using both in vivo and in vitro approaches, especially in the EMT(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in regulating the response of cancer cells to various therapeutic interventions, yet their involvement in the chemoresistance of human epithelial ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We found that miR-136 was significantly downregulated in specimens from patients with chemoresistant epithelial ovarian cancer. In the(More)
STUDY QUESTION Is there a molecular link between Wnt signaling in fallopian tube inflammation and ectopic tubal implantation? SUMMARY ANSWER Enhanced beta-catenin expression, reduced E-cadherin expression and glycogen accumulation in the tubal epithelia and hyperplasia in tubal arteries were found in ectopic tubal pregnancy, consistent with the effects(More)
It is now known that over-consumption of caffeine by pregnant mothers could have detrimental effects on normal fetal development. However, it remains obscure how caffeine's harmful effect impacts directly or indirectly on the developing embryo/fetus through damaging placenta development. In this study, we demonstrated the morphological similarities between(More)
In this study, we show that high-salt exposure dramatically increases chick mortality during embryo development. As embryonic mortality at early stages mainly results from defects in cardiovascular development, we focused on heart formation and angiogenesis. We found that high-salt exposure enhanced the risk of abnormal heart tube looping and blood(More)