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Harpin proteins as elicitor derived from plant gram negative bacteria such as Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), Erwinia amylovora induce disease resistance in plants by activating multiple defense responses. However, it is unclear whether phytoalexin production and ROS burst are involved in the disease resistance conferred by the expression of the(More)
We experimentally demonstrate the fluctuation theorem, which predicts appreciable and measurable violations of the second law of thermodynamics for small systems over short time scales, by following the trajectory of a colloidal particle captured in an optical trap that is translated relative to surrounding water molecules. From each particle trajectory, we(More)
Cataract is a major ocular disease that causes blindness in many developing countries of the world. It is well established that various factors such as oxidative stress, UV, and other toxic agents can induce both in vivo and in vitro cataract formation. However, a common cellular basis for this induction has not been previously recognized. The present study(More)
PURPOSE A new redox regulating enzyme, thioltransferase (TTase), has been found in the lens. The authors investigated whether TTase is also present in other ocular tissues. METHODS Fresh enucleated bovine eyes were obtained from a local abattoir 4 hours after death. The eyes were processed immediately to remove corneal epithelial cells, conjunctiva,(More)
The puzzle of how time-reversible microscopic equations of mechanics lead to the time-irreversible macroscopic equations of thermodynamics has been a paradox since the days of Boltzmann. Boltzmann simply sidestepped this enigma by stating "as soon as one looks at bodies of such small dimension that they contain only very few molecules, the validity of this(More)
The IGF system components play important roles in cerebellar development as demonstrated by their specific spatial-temporal expression. IGF-I, type I IGF receptor (IGFR-I), IGFBP2 and IGFBP5 mRNA are localized in distinct cell populations, and all are expressed at the highest levels at the peak of Purkinje cell growth, active synaptogenesis and dendritic(More)
The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has accrued RNA-Seq-based transcriptome data for more than 4000 cancer tissue samples across 12 cancer types, translating these data into biological insights remains a major challenge. We analyzed and compared the transcriptomes of 4043 cancer and 548 normal tissue samples from 21 TCGA cancer types, and created a comprehensive(More)
Effective management of data is a major issue in genomics. Genomics data consists of highly interrelated information about genes, proteins, patterns, classifications, and interactions. Graph databases, which model graphs or networks of data, seem a natural way to manage genomics data. Graph databases can support visualization of both queries and results by(More)
The fluctuation theorem (FT) quantifies the probability of second law violations in small systems over short time scales. While this theorem has been experimentally demonstrated for systems that are perturbed from an initial equilibrium state, there are a number of studies suggesting that the theorem applies asymptotically in the long time limit to systems(More)