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At present, most M2M solutions in different industries use proprietary systems that often comprise all layers, from physical to application, to provide their specialized M2M services to customers. These proprietary systems make it difficult to extend systems to support new services, integrate new data, and interoperate with other M2M systems. This issue(More)
There are global initiatives underway to establish a communications framework for Smart Grid systems. These efforts are led by governments, standardization bodies, and industry consortiums. This paper analyzes several challenges that are associated with communicating in Smart Grid systems and assesses the suitability of using the European Telecommunications(More)
Mobile devices supporting multiple radio technologies are becoming mainstream in the market. These devices can experience vertical handovers between heterogeneous networks due to device mobility or multiple network coverage. Handover latency is critical to ensure session continuity and end user experience. This paper presents a solution using IEEE 802.21 to(More)
The objectives of this study were to determine the concentrations of free benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and apparent partitions coefficients (K m) in micelle solutions and to explore its application in formulation development. Ultrafiltration (UF) was carried out using 10K Nanosep® devices and centrifugation at 5,000 rpm for 5 min. The separation of free BAC(More)
To understand drug delivery to the sebum filled hair and sebaceous follicles, it is essential to use an artificial sebum as a surrogate of the human sebum for the investigation of drug transport properties. Artificial sebum L was developed in-house based on the chemical similarity to human sebum. The partition and diffusion of model compounds (ethyl(More)
A new solid form (Form IV) of celecoxib was prepared in the presence of Polysorbate 80 and HPMC. A celecoxib suspension containing the Form IV had significantly higher bioavailability (>4 times) in dogs than the marketed capsules and the suspension containing bulk drug powders (Form III). The new form was characterized using differential scanning(More)
This paper summarises the proceedings of a recent workshop which brought together pharmaceutical scientists and dermatologists from academia, industry and regulatory agencies to discuss current regulatory issues and industry practices for establishing therapeutic bioequivalence (BE) of dermatologic topical products. The methods currently available for(More)
Sebaceous glands secrete an oily sebum into the hair follicle. Hence, it is necessary to understand the drug partition and diffusion properties in the sebum for the targeted delivery of therapeutic agents into the sebum-filled hair follicle. A new method was developed and used for determination of sebum flux of topical therapeutic agents and other model(More)
Targeted delivery of a therapeutic agent into the hair and sebaceous follicles greatly depends on the extent of drug partitioning/diffusion in the sebum. The objective of the present research was to develop a method to determine the sebum partition coefficient in order to facilitate the selection of sebum-targeted drug candidates. Partition coefficients of(More)
This study explored the utility of topically applied polymeric nanoparticle suspensions to target delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs to hair follicles. Several formulations of amorphous drug/polymer nanoparticles were prepared from ethyl cellulose and UK-157,147 (systematic name(More)