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The distribution volume ratio (DVR), which is a linear function of receptor availability, is widely used as a model parameter in imaging studies. The DVR corresponds to the ratio of the DV of a receptor-containing region to a nonreceptor region and generally requires the measurement of an arterial input function. Here we propose a graphical method for(More)
Cocaine is believed to work by blocking the dopamine transporter (DAT) and thereby increasing the availability of free dopamine within the brain. Although this concept is central to current cocaine research and to treatment development, a direct relationship between DAT blockade and the subjective effects of cocaine has not been demonstrated in humans. We(More)
OBJECTIVE The therapeutic effects of methylphenidate in the treatment of attention deficit disorder have been attributed to its ability to increase the synaptic concentration of dopamine by blocking the dopamine transporters. However, the levels of dopamine transporter blockade achieved by therapeutic doses of methylphenidate are not known. This study(More)
OBJECTIVE The role of dopamine in the addictive process (loss of control and compulsive drug intake) is poorly understood. A consistent finding in drug-addicted subjects is a lower level of dopamine D2 receptors. In cocaine abusers, low levels of D2 receptors are associated with a lower level of metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex. Because the(More)
OBJECTIVE Methamphetamine is a popular and highly addictive drug of abuse that has raised concerns because it has been shown in laboratory animals to be neurotoxic to dopamine terminals. The authors evaluated if similar changes occur in humans and assessed if they were functionally significant. METHOD Positron emission tomography scans following(More)
Decreased dopaminergic function has been postulated to underlie cocaine addiction. To examine the possibility that dysfunction of brain regions subserved by the dopamine system could promote cocaine self-administration, positron emission tomography and a dual-tracer approach was used to examine dopamine D2 receptor availability and regional brain glucose(More)
BACKGROUND The cerebral mechanisms underlying the behaviours that lead to pathological overeating and obesity are poorly understood. Dopamine, a neurotransmitter that modulates rewarding properties of food, is likely to be involved. To test the hypothesis that obese individuals have abnormalities in brain dopamine activity we measured the availability of(More)
Methamphetamine is a popular drug of abuse that is neurotoxic to dopamine (DA) terminals when administered to laboratory animals. Studies in methamphetamine abusers have also documented significant loss of DA transporters (used as markers of the DA terminal) that are associated with slower motor function and decreased memory. The extent to which the loss of(More)
Carbon-11-raclopride has been successfully utilized with PET to assess changes in endogenous dopamine concentration after pharmacological intervention in the living baboon brain. For similar studies to be done in humans, measurements of 11C-raclopride with no intervention need to be reproducible. In order to test the reproducibility (test-retest) of(More)
OBJECTIVE Although it is documented that brain dopamine activity declines with age, the functional significance of this is not known. This study assessed the relation between measures of brain dopamine activity and indexes of motor and cognitive function in healthy individuals. METHOD Thirty healthy volunteers aged 24-86 years were studied with positron(More)