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Several ion channels are thought to be directly modulated by nitric oxide (NO), but the molecular basis of this regulation is unclear. Here we show that the NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-associated ion channel was modulated not only by exogenous NO but also by endogenous NO. Site-directed mutagenesis identified a critical cysteine residue (Cys 399) on the NR2A(More)
Active regulation of gene expression in the nervous system plays an important role in the development and/or maintenance of inflammatory pain. MicroRNA (miRNA) negatively regulates gene expression via posttranscriptional or transcriptional inhibition of specific genes. To explore the possible involvement of miRNA in gene regulation during inflammatory pain,(More)
The silencer factor NRSF/REST has been reported to restrict expression to neurons of a variety of genes, including that encoding NMDA receptor subunit type 1 (NR1), by suppressing transcription in nonneuronal cells. However, we recently reported that in addition to the absence of NRSF/REST-binding activity, another neuron-specific mechanism is necessary for(More)
The NR1 gene undergoes induction in neurogenesis mainly via promoter de-repression, and up-regulation during neuronal differentiation by undefined mechanism(s). Here, we show that in the distal region the NR1 promoter has an active NF-kappaB site sharing the consensus with the immunoglobulin (Ig)/human immunodeficiency virus NF-kappaB site. Mutation of this(More)
Recent studies indicate that persistent pain after tissue or nerve injury is accompanied by an enhanced net descending facilitatory drive that contributes to an amplification and spread of pain. Although 5-HT-containing neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) provide the major descending serotonergic projection to the spinal cord, it is not clear(More)
BACKGROUND Several classes of histone deacetylases (HDACs) are expressed in the spinal cord that is a critical structure of the nociceptive pathway. HDAC-regulated histone acetylation is an important component of chromatin remodeling leading to epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. To understand the role of histone acetylation in epigenetic(More)
To understand the genetic mechanism controlling the expression of the NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors during neuronal differentiation, we studied activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 (NR1) gene and the role of the repressor element-1 (RE1) element in NR1 promoter activation. Following neuronal differentiation of P19 embryonic(More)
The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptor plays important roles in neuronal development, plasticity, and cell death. NMDA receptor subunit 1 (NR1) is an essential subunit of the NMDA receptor and is developmentally expressed in postnatal neurons of the central nervous system. Here we identify on the NR1 promoter a binding site for(More)
The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptor plays important roles in synaptic plasticity, the induction of long term potentiation, and excitotoxicity. Mechanisms governing the regulation of expression of its subunit genes remain largely unknown. The promoter of the essential subunit of the NMDA receptor heteromer, NMDAR1, contains DNA(More)