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As inflow and outflow stenoses worsen, both flow resistance and pressure increase in the stenotic vascular access. During dialysis, when blood flow decreases, it may retrograde from the peripheral artery through the palmar arch to the arterial anastomosis site. Arterial steal syndrome (ASS) causes distal hypoperfusion, resulting in hand ischemia or(More)
This study proposes virtual-reality (VR) simulator system for double interventional cardiac catheterization (ICC) using fractional-order vascular access tracker and haptic force producer. An endoscope or a catheter for diagnosis and surgery of cardiovascular disease has been commonly used in minimally invasive surgery. It needs specific skills and(More)
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