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Major phenotypic changes evolve in parallel in nature by molecular mechanisms that are largely unknown. Here, we use positional cloning methods to identify the major chromosome locus controlling armor plate patterning in wild threespine sticklebacks. Mapping, sequencing, and transgenic studies show that the Ectodysplasin (EDA) signaling pathway plays a key(More)
The molecular mechanisms underlying major phenotypic changes that have evolved repeatedly in nature are generally unknown. Pelvic loss in different natural populations of threespine stickleback fish has occurred through regulatory mutations deleting a tissue-specific enhancer of the Pituitary homeobox transcription factor 1 (Pitx1) gene. The high prevalence(More)
PURPOSE Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) and TSP2 are matricellular proteins that have been shown to regulate cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Both TSP1 and TSP2 are found in the trabecular meshwork (TM). In cadaver eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), TSP1 is increased in one third of patients. We hypothesized that TSP1 and(More)
PURPOSE The microRNA-29 (miR-29) family has emerged, in various tissues, as a key modulator of extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis. In this study, the authors investigate the role of the miR-29 family in the regulation of ECM synthesis in the trabecular meshwork (TM) under basal and TGF-β2 stimulatory conditions. METHODS Human TM cells were incubated(More)
Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is the most common corneal dystrophy and frequently results in vision loss. Hallmarks of the disease include loss of corneal endothelial cells and formation of excrescences of Descemet's membrane. Later stages involve all layers of the cornea. Impairment of endothelial barrier and pump function and cell death from(More)
PURPOSE Canonical Wnt signaling has emerged as a critical regulator of aqueous outflow facility and intraocular pressure (IOP). In this study, we examine the role of canonical Wnt signaling on extracellular matrix (ECM) expression in the trabecular meshwork (TM) and explore the molecular mechanisms involved. METHODS β-catenin localization in human TM(More)
There are approximately 400 breeds of dog worldwide, displaying significant differences in body size, coat type, leg length, head shape, and more. We have undertaken a genome wide association study (GWAS), involving hundreds of dogs to identify the genes and mutations responsible for this range of variation. A total of 835 dogs from nearly 80 breeds were(More)
PURPOSE Statins have been shown to increase aqueous outflow facility. The matricellular protein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) is a critical mediator of aqueous outflow and intraocular pressure (IOP). Here, we examine the effects of lovastatin on SPARC expression in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells, exploring the molecular mechanisms(More)
PURPOSE In this study, we investigate how adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) affects extracellular matrix (ECM) and cellular tone in the trabecular meshwork (TM), and examine how deletion of its catalytic α2 subunit affects IOP and aqueous humor clearance in mice. METHODS Human TM tissue was examined for expression of AMPKα1 and(More)
peer review Section editor: barbara Smit, md, phd Sometimes, I envy my retinal colleagues for the remarkable advances that have emerged over the past decade in targeted therapy for proliferative vascular diseases. By interrupting the molecular cascade triggered by vascular endothelial growth factor, these therapies have provided an elegant treatment with(More)
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