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The study of continuously varying, quantitative traits is important in evolutionary biology, agriculture, and medicine. Variation in such traits is attributable to many, possibly interacting, genes whose expression may be sensitive to the environment, which makes their dissection into underlying causative factors difficult. An important population parameter(More)
Important risk factors for melanoma are densely clustered melanocytic nevi (common moles) and mutations in the p16 (CDKN2A) gene. Nevi may be subclassified as raised or flat. In our sample, raised nevi were 27% of the total, and the two kinds had a correlation of.33. Correlations for total-nevus count (TNC) in 153 MZ and 199 DZ twin pairs were.94 and.60,(More)
A genome-wide linkage scan of 795 microsatellite markers (761 autosomal, 34 X chromosome) was performed on Multidimensional Aptitude Battery subtests and verbal, performance and full scale scores, the WAIS-R Digit Symbol subtest, and two word-recognition tests (Schonell Graded Word Reading Test, Cambridge Contextual Reading Test) highly predictive of IQ.(More)
Hair morphology is highly differentiated between populations and among people of European ancestry. Whereas hair morphology in East Asian populations has been studied extensively, relatively little is known about the genetics of this trait in Europeans. We performed a genome-wide association scan for hair morphology (straight, wavy, curly) in three(More)
Two major challenges to conducting a community-based twin study of pathological gambling (PG) disorder are that: (a) it is relatively rare, and (b) individuals with the disorder in the community may be difficult to locate and recruit. We describe a new study of 4,764 individuals recruited from the Australian Twin Registry in which we attempt to effectively(More)
Height has been used for more than a century as a model by which to understand quantitative genetic variation in humans. We report that the entire genome appears to contribute to its additive genetic variance. We used genotypes and phenotypes of 11,214 sibling pairs from three countries to partition additive genetic variance across the genome. Using genome(More)
Working memory-related brain activation has been widely studied, and impaired activation patterns have been reported for several psychiatric disorders. We investigated whether variation in N-back working memory brain activation is genetically influenced in 60 pairs of twins, (29 monozygotic (MZ), 31 dizygotic (DZ); mean age 24.4+/-1.7S.D.). Task-related(More)
We present evidence here that exosomes stimulate aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ)1-42 in vitro and in vivo and interfere with uptake of Aβ by primary cultured astrocytes and microglia in vitro. Exosome secretion is prevented by the inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2), a key regulatory enzyme generating ceramide from sphingomyelin, with(More)
BACKGROUND Because alcohol has multiple dose-dependent consequences, it is important to understand the causes of individual variation in the amount of alcohol used. The aims of this study were to assess the long-term repeatability and genetic or environmental causes of variation in alcohol intake and to estimate the degree of overlap with causes of(More)
Previous studies have successfully identified genetic variants in several genes associated with human iris (eye) color; however, they all used simplified categorical trait information. Here, we quantified continuous eye color variation into hue and saturation values using high-resolution digital full-eye photographs and conducted a genome-wide association(More)