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The study of continuously varying, quantitative traits is important in evolutionary biology, agriculture, and medicine. Variation in such traits is attributable to many, possibly interacting, genes whose expression may be sensitive to the environment, which makes their dissection into underlying causative factors difficult. An important population parameter(More)
Hair morphology is highly differentiated between populations and among people of European ancestry. Whereas hair morphology in East Asian populations has been studied extensively, relatively little is known about the genetics of this trait in Europeans. We performed a genome-wide association scan for hair morphology (straight, wavy, curly) in three(More)
Height has been used for more than a century as a model by which to understand quantitative genetic variation in humans. We report that the entire genome appears to contribute to its additive genetic variance. We used genotypes and phenotypes of 11,214 sibling pairs from three countries to partition additive genetic variance across the genome. Using genome(More)
Two major challenges to conducting a community-based twin study of pathological gambling (PG) disorder are that: (a) it is relatively rare, and (b) individuals with the disorder in the community may be difficult to locate and recruit. We describe a new study of 4,764 individuals recruited from the Australian Twin Registry in which we attempt to effectively(More)
Working memory-related brain activation has been widely studied, and impaired activation patterns have been reported for several psychiatric disorders. We investigated whether variation in N-back working memory brain activation is genetically influenced in 60 pairs of twins, (29 monozygotic (MZ), 31 dizygotic (DZ); mean age 24.4+/-1.7S.D.). Task-related(More)
BACKGROUND Because alcohol has multiple dose-dependent consequences, it is important to understand the causes of individual variation in the amount of alcohol used. The aims of this study were to assess the long-term repeatability and genetic or environmental causes of variation in alcohol intake and to estimate the degree of overlap with causes of(More)
We present evidence here that exosomes stimulate aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ)1-42 in vitro and in vivo and interfere with uptake of Aβ by primary cultured astrocytes and microglia in vitro. Exosome secretion is prevented by the inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2), a key regulatory enzyme generating ceramide from sphingomyelin, with(More)
Previous studies have successfully identified genetic variants in several genes associated with human iris (eye) color; however, they all used simplified categorical trait information. Here, we quantified continuous eye color variation into hue and saturation values using high-resolution digital full-eye photographs and conducted a genome-wide association(More)
Despite the decline in coronary heart disease in many European countries, the disease remains an enormous public health problem. Although we know a great deal about environmental risk factors for coronary heart disease, a heritable component was recognized a long time ago. The earliest and best known examples of how our genetic constitution may determine(More)
The choice of where to live would appear to be determined by a combination of economic constraints and personal preferences. We have tested how far this choice is affected by the continuing effects of the environment shared within families, and genetic variation between people, using data from twin studies conducted in Australia. The addresses provided by(More)