Grzegorz Witkowski

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BACKGROUND Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare triplet repeat (CAG) disorder. Advanced, multi-centre, multi-national research frameworks are needed to study simultaneously multiple complementary aspects of HD. This includes the natural history of HD, its management and the collection of clinical information and biosamples for research. METHODS We report(More)
Pyramidal neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) exhibit dopamine-dependent prolonged depolarization, which may lead to persistent activity. Persistent activation of prefrontal cortex neurons has been proposed to underlie the working memory process. The purpose of our study was to test the hypothesis that activation of D(1) dopamine receptors leads(More)
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons are altered in neuropsychiatric disorders. cAMP is a component of the transduction pathways involved in the control of ionic channels by metabotropic receptors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cAMP modifies the activity of the G(More)
Several candidate modifier genes which, in addition to the pathogenic CAG repeat expansion, influence the age at onset (AO) in Huntington disease (HD) have already been described. The aim of this study was to replicate association of variations in the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype genes GRIN2A and GRIN2B in the "REGISTRY" cohort from the European(More)
Opioid transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex is involved in mood regulation and is altered by drug dependency. However, the mechanism by which ionic channels in cortical neurons are controlled by mu opioid receptors has not been elucidated. In this study, the effect of mu opioid receptor activation on voltage-dependent Na(+) currents was assessed in(More)
The Achilles or calcaneal tendon is the structural base for the biomechanical work of the ankle joint. The purpose of this study is to describe the internal structure of the human Achilles tendon. The anatomy of the Achilles tendon has been described in lower mammals in which it has three parts which can be dissected from its beginning to the insertion onto(More)
This study assesses the effects of ATP and GTP on the kinetic properties of voltage-gated K+ currents in anatomically identified postganglionic sympathetic neurons innervating the submandibular gland and the masseter muscle in rats. Three types of K+ currents were isolated: the I(Af) steady-state inactivating at more hyperpolarized potentials, I(As)(More)
This study presents the kinetic and pharmacological properties of voltage-gated Ca(2+) currents in anatomically defined cardiac dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in rats. The neurons were labelled by prior injection of fluorescent tracer Fast Blue into the pericardial sack. There were three distinct groups of neurons with respect to cell size: small (27%(More)
Due to the increasing incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), many studies have aimed to improve its diagnosis. Particular attention has been focused on measuring volumes of brain structures. Only few studies have investigated whether the cerebellar volume changes with the stage of dementia. It is controversial whether the serum apolipoprotein E (ApoE) level(More)
Cigarette smoking is a major modifiable risk factor for stroke. Smoking dose dependently increases the risk of stroke, especially in patients below 75 years of age. Although smoking cessation is considered as one of the most effective methods of secondary stroke prevention, little is known about nicotine dependence and predictors of smoking cessation after(More)