Grzegorz S. Litynski

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The introduction of endoscopy into surgical practice is one of the biggest success stories in the history of medicine. Endoscopy has its roots in the nineteenth century and was initially developed by urologists and internists. During the 1960s and 1970s gynecologists took the lead in the development of endoscopic surgery while most of the surgical community(More)
During the early 1980s, news of Semm's laparoscopic appendectomy was rippling through German medical circles. Erich Mühe, fascinated by Semm's technique and spurred by successes of the Erlangen endoscopists, came up with the idea of laparoscopic removal of gallstones. In 1984, Mühe had already worked out the details of an operative laparoscope, the(More)
The traditional gap between surgeons and internists was much wider 100 years ago than nowadays. At the beginning of the twentieth century, neither group was particularly open to the idea of scholarly exchange. In this respect, both early pioneers of laparoscopy, Georg Kelling (1866-1945) (Figure 1), a German surgeon of Dresden, and Hans Christian Jacobaeus(More)
In the late 1980s, laparoscopy was essentially a gynecologist's tool. One of the French private surgeons, Phillipe Mouret of Lyon, shared his surgery practice with a gynecologist and thus had access to both laparoscopic equipment and to patients requiring laparoscopy. In March of 1987, Mouret carried out his first cholecystectomy by means of electronic(More)
Endoscopic surgery, as a result of over 90 years of investigation, has now become the most innovative part of general surgery; every procedure in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity, intraperitoneal or extraperitoneal, has been reviewed for feasibility. The basic principles in the management of surgical patients, however, have not changed: adequate(More)
In the 1970s, Semm developed thermocoagulation, adapted the Roeder Loop, and further invented extra- and intracoporeal endoscopic knotting to achieve endoscopic hemostasis. His numerous technical inventions, especially the electronic insufflator, allowed more complex operations to be performed laparoscopically. His technique, however, was not quickly(More)
Work on tubal insufflation marked the beginning of Kurt Semm's (b. 1927) scientific career. In the early 1960s, he directed his attention to the fact that, from a technical standpoint, tubal insufflation was similar to creating pneumoperitoneum. In the mid-1960s, Semm--himself a gynecologist--investiged his time and financial resources and risked his(More)
In the United States, culdoscopy (a vaginal approach to view the abdomen) replaced laparoscopy for about 20 years, circa 1950-1970. In contrast to many of his colleagues, Hans Frangenheim of Wuppertal, Germany, was not satisfied with culdoscopy and turned to an abdominal approach. Frangenheim began publishing his experiences with gynecological laparoscopy(More)