Grzegorz S. Litynski

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Work on tubal insufflation marked the beginning of Kurt Semm's (b. 1927) scientific career. In the early 1960s, he directed his attention to the fact that, from a technical standpoint, tubal insufflation was similar to creating pneumoperitoneum. In the mid-1960s, Semm--himself a gynecologist--investiged his time and financial resources and risked his(More)
During the early 1980s, news of Semm's laparoscopic appendectomy was rippling through German medical circles. Erich Mühe, fascinated by Semm's technique and spurred by successes of the Erlangen endoscopists, came up with the idea of laparoscopic removal of gallstones. In 1984, Mühe had already worked out the details of an operative laparoscope, the(More)
thereafter Germany broke through the French defensive forces near Sedan. Political lethargy, a poor communication system and many mistakes accelerated the downfall of the French army. By the end of May approximately 350,000 French solders were trapped in Dunkirk. The French army surrendered. Paris was declared an "open city" and the French government(More)
The traditional gap between surgeons and internists was much wider 100 years ago than nowadays. At the beginning of the twentieth century, neither group was particularly open to the idea of scholarly exchange. In this respect, both early pioneers of laparoscopy, Georg Kelling (1866-1945) ((F Fi ig gu ur re e 1 1)), a German surgeon of Dresden, and Hans(More)
In the late 1980s, laparoscopy was essentially a gynecologist's tool. One of the French private surgeons, Phillipe Mouret of Lyon, shared his surgery practice with a gynecologist and thus had access to both laparoscopic equipment and to patients requiring laparoscopy. In March of 1987, Mouret carried out his first cholecystectomy by means of electronic(More)
In the 1970s, Semm developed thermocoagulation, adapted the Roeder Loop, and further invented extra- and intracoporeal endoscopic knotting to achieve endoscopic hemostasis. His numerous technical inventions, especially the electronic insufflator, allowed more complex operations to be performed laparoscopically. His technique, however, was not quickly(More)
At the end of the 20th century, access to information provided by the World Wide Web (WWW) is changing as never before. The fast availability of current medical literature and the availability of tools for easy access to information, as well as for the easy production of information, have confronted research physicians, scholars, and students with new kinds(More)
In the late 1950s, Patrick C. Steptoe, a British gynecologist, established contact with Palmer of Paris and Frangenheim of Wuppertal, Germany, and studied laparoscopic technique under the tutelage of these pioneers. Despite the negative attitude among his colleagues, Steptoe soon became one of the most innovative researchers in the field of abdominal(More)
In the United States, culdoscopy (a vaginal approach to view the abdomen) replaced laparoscopy for about 20 years, circa 1950-1970. In contrast to many of his colleagues, Hans Frangenheim of Wuppertal, Germany, was not satisfied with culdoscopy and turned to an abdominal approach. Frangenheim began publishing his experiences with gynecological laparoscopy(More)
Heinz Kalk (1895-1973) of Frankfurt am Main was a young medical student in 1914 when he reported to the recruitment center for service in the German army. 1 Kalk served four years as an artillery officer on the Western Front, and was wounded in 1918. Kalk continued his studies after the first world war and passed the medical examination in 1921. In 1927, he(More)
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