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The base excision repair (BER) pathway is essential for the removal of DNA bases damaged by alkylation or oxidation. A key step in BER is the processing of an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site intermediate by an AP endonuclease. The major AP endonuclease in human cells (APE1, also termed HAP1 and Ref-1) accounts for >95% of the total AP endonuclease activity,(More)
Aprataxin, defective in the neurodegenerative disorder ataxia oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1), is a DNA repair protein that processes the product of abortive ligations, 5' adenylated DNA. In addition to its interaction with the single-strand break repair protein XRCC1, aprataxin also interacts with poly-ADP ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1), a key player in the(More)
The E3 ubiquitin ligase Mule/ARF-BP1 plays an important role in the cellular DNA damage response by controlling base excision repair and p53 protein levels. However, how the activity of Mule is regulated in response to DNA damage is currently unknown. Here, we report that the Ser18-containing isoform of the USP7 deubiquitylation enzyme (USP7S) controls Mule(More)
Base excision repair (BER) is a frontline repair system that is responsible for maintaining genome integrity and thus preventing premature aging, cancer and many other human diseases by repairing thousands of DNA lesions and strand breaks continuously caused by endogenous and exogenous mutagens. This fundamental and essential function of BER not only(More)
DNA strand breaks containing 3'-phosphoglycolate (3'-PG) ends are the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. The repair of this lesion is not completely understood and several activities are thought to be involved in processing of 3'-PG ends. In this study we examined activities in human whole cell extracts (WCE) responsible for removal of 3'-PG.(More)
The incision of the 8-oxoguanine in DNA by normal and Cockayne Syndrome (CS) cell extracts has been investigated. The incision in extracts derived from CS cells was approximately 50% of the incision level compared with extracts prepared from normal cells. In contrast, the incision rate of uracil and thymine glycol was not defective in CS cells. The(More)
USP7 is involved in the cellular stress response by regulating Mdm2 and p53 protein levels following severe DNA damage. In addition to this, USP7 may also play a role in chromatin remodelling by direct deubiquitylation of histones, as well as indirectly by regulating the cellular levels of E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in histone ubiquitylation. Here, we(More)
BACKGROUND The base excision-repair pathway is the major cellular defence mechanism against spontaneous DNA damage. The enzymes involved have been highly conserved during evolution. Base excision-repair has been reproduced previously with crude cell-free extracts of bacterial or human origin. To further our understanding of base excision-repair, we have(More)
Mammalian mitochondria contain several 16.5 kb circular DNAs (mtDNA) encoding electron transport chain proteins. Reactive oxygen species formed as byproducts from oxidative phosphorylation in these organelles can cause oxidative deamination of cytosine and lead to uracil in mtDNA. Upon mtDNA replication, these lesions, if unrepaired, can lead to mutations.(More)
DNA single-strand breaks containing 3'-8-oxoguanine (3'-8-oxoG) ends can arise as a consequence of ionizing radiation and as a result of DNA polymerase infidelity by misincorporation of 8-oxodGMP. In this study we examined the mechanism of repair of 3'-8-oxoG within a single-strand break using purified base excision repair enzymes and human whole cell(More)