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The base excision repair (BER) pathway is essential for the removal of DNA bases damaged by alkylation or oxidation. A key step in BER is the processing of an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site intermediate by an AP endonuclease. The major AP endonuclease in human cells (APE1, also termed HAP1 and Ref-1) accounts for >95% of the total AP endonuclease activity,(More)
Base excision repair is the major pathway for the repair of oxidative DNA damage in human cells that is initiated by a damage-specific DNA glycosylase. In human cells, the major DNA glycosylases for the excision of oxidative base damage are OGG1 and NTH1 that excise 8-oxoguanine and oxidative pyrimidines, respectively. We find that both enzymes have limited(More)
The E3 ubiquitin ligase Mule/ARF-BP1 plays an important role in the cellular DNA damage response by controlling base excision repair and p53 protein levels. However, how the activity of Mule is regulated in response to DNA damage is currently unknown. Here, we report that the Ser18-containing isoform of the USP7 deubiquitylation enzyme (USP7S) controls Mule(More)
Base excision repair (BER) is a frontline repair system that is responsible for maintaining genome integrity and thus preventing premature aging, cancer and many other human diseases by repairing thousands of DNA lesions and strand breaks continuously caused by endogenous and exogenous mutagens. This fundamental and essential function of BER not only(More)
DNA strand breaks containing 3 0-phosphoglycolate (3 0-PG) ends are the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. The repair of this lesion is not completely understood and several activities are thought to be involved in processing of 3 0-PG ends. In this study we examined activities in human whole cell extracts (WCE) responsible for removal of 3 0-PG.(More)
USP7 is involved in the cellular stress response by regulating Mdm2 and p53 protein levels following severe DNA damage. In addition to this, USP7 may also play a role in chromatin remodelling by direct deubiquitylation of histones, as well as indirectly by regulating the cellular levels of E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in histone ubiquitylation. Here, we(More)
X-ray repair cross-complementing protein-1 (XRCC1)-deficient cells are sensitive to DNA damaging agents and have delayed processing of DNA base lesions. In support of its role in base excision repair, it was found that XRCC1 forms a tight complex with DNA ligase IIIalpha and also interacts with DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) and other base excision repair(More)
DNA single-strand breaks containing 3'-8-oxoguanine (3'-8-oxoG) ends can arise as a consequence of ionizing radiation and as a result of DNA polymerase infidelity by misincorporation of 8-oxodGMP. In this study we examined the mechanism of repair of 3'-8-oxoG within a single-strand break using purified base excision repair enzymes and human whole cell(More)
APE1 (Ref-1) is an essential human protein involved in DNA damage repair and regulation of transcription. Although the cellular functions and biochemical properties of APE1 are well characterized, the mechanism involved in regulation of the cellular levels of this important DNA repair/transcriptional regulation enzyme, remains poorly understood. Using an in(More)
In mammalian cells, base excision repair (BER) is the major repair pathway involved in the removal of non-bulky damaged nucleotides. The fidelity of BER is dependent on the polymerization step, where the major BER DNA polymerase (Pol beta) must incorporate the correct Watson-Crick base paired nucleotide into the one nucleotide repair gap. Recent studies(More)