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In Parkinson's disease (PD), freezing of gait (FOG) is associated with widespread functional and structural gray matter changes throughout the brain. Previous study of freezing-related white matter changes was restricted to brainstem and cerebellar locomotor tracts. This study was undertaken to determine the spatial distribution of white matter damage(More)
This exploratory study aimed to identify which aspects of postural control are able to distinguish between subgroups of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and controls. Balance was tested using static and dynamic posturography. Freezers (n = 9), nonfreezers (n = 10), and controls (n = 10) stood on a movable force platform and performed 3 randomly(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD) and tremor dominant (TD) subtypes of Parkinson's disease (PD) show different patterns of alterations in functional connectivity (FC) between specific brain regions. This study aimed to investigate the relation between symptomatic heterogeneity in PD and structural alterations(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with freezing of gait (FOG) have more difficulty with switching tasks as well as controlling the spatiotemporal parameters of gait than patients without FOG. Objective. To compare the ability of patients with and without FOG to adjust their gait to sudden speed switching and to prolonged walking in asymmetrical conditions. METHODS Gait(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the strong relationship between freezing of gait (FOG) and turning in Parkinson's disease (PD), few studies have addressed specific postural characteristics during turning that might contribute to freezing. METHODS Thirty participants with PD (16 freezers, 14 non-freezers) (all tested OFF medication) and 14 healthy controls walked 5(More)
Clinical subtypes in Parkinson's disease (PD) are often based on the presence of clustered motor symptoms. In contrast to the tremor dominant (TD) subtype, the postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD) subtype is characterized by predominantly axial motor involvement and increased cognitive impairment. It is, however, unclear if subtypes represent(More)
BACKGROUND Micrographia occurs in approximately 60% of people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Although handwriting is an important task in daily life, it is not clear whether relearning and consolidation (ie the solid storage in motor memory) of this skill is possible in PD. The objective was to conduct for the first time a controlled study into the effects(More)
Recent research has highlighted the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to complement rehabilitation effects in the elderly and in patients with neurological diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). TDCS can modulate cortical excitability and enhance neurophysiological mechanisms that compensate for impaired learning in PD. The(More)
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer from severe motor symptoms which can only be partly alleviated by means of dopaminergic medication. Motor rehabilitation, i.e. relearning of a known motor skill through intensive practice, can be an effective and lasting therapeutic supplement in chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies on motor(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies show that besides freezing of gait (FOG), many people with Parkinson's disease (PD) also suffer from freezing in the upper limbs (FOUL). Up to now, it is unclear which task constraints provoke and explain upper limb freezing. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether upper limb freezing and other kinematic abnormalities during writing are(More)