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BACKGROUND The question of how many marine species exist is important because it provides a metric for how much we do and do not know about life in the oceans. We have compiled the first register of the marine species of the world and used this baseline to estimate how many more species, partitioned among all major eukaryotic groups, may be discovered. (More)
The magnitude of the worldwide invasions of Didemnum vexillum Kott, 2002 has taken a number of years to be comprehended. During the past 15 years, it has been identified as different species depending on its location—D. carnulentum on the U.S. west coast, D. lutarium or D. vestum in New England, D. lahillei or D. helgolandicum in France and the Netherlands,(More)
Numerous colonies of the invasive colonial ascidian Didemnum vexillum Kott, 2002 have been found in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) in 2012, overgrowing fouling organisms on maritime structures such as docks, pilings, and pontoons. This is the first record for the Mediterranean Sea. A survey conducted in July 2012 revealed that D. vexillum is present in the(More)
The majority of invertebrate skeletal tissues are composed of the most stable crystalline polymorphs of CaCO(3), calcite, and/or aragonite. Here we describe a composite skeletal tissue from an ascidian in which amorphous and crystalline calcium carbonate coexist in well-defined domains separated by an organic sheath. Each biogenic mineral phase has a(More)
Antisense oligonucleotides with base sequences complementary to a specific RNA can, after binding to intracellular mRNA, selectively modulate the expression of a gene. However, these molecules are poorly stable in biological fluids and are characterized by a low intracellular penetration. In view of using oligonucleotides as active molecules, the(More)
Antisense oligonucleotides are molecules that are able to inhibit gene expression being therefore potentially active for the treatment of viral infections or cancer. However, because of their poor stability in biological medium and their weak intracellular penetration, colloidal drugs carriers such as nanoparticles were developed for the delivery of(More)
EWS Fli-1, a fusion gene resulting from a t(11;22) translocation is found in 90% of both Ewing's sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). In the present study, we show that recently developed polyisobutylcyanoacrylate nanocapsules with an aqueous core were able to encapsulate efficiently high amounts of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (ODN)(More)
PURPOSE The goal of the present paper was to encapsulate oligonucleotides in a new particulate carrier in order to protect them from enzymatic degradation. METHODS Nanocapsules with an aqueous core containing oligonucleotides were prepared by interfacial polymerization of isobutylcyanoacrylate in a W/O emulsion. Ultracentrifugation and re-suspension in(More)
A colonial tunicate belonging to the genus Didemnum has recently been found in many temperate coastal regions throughout the world, as well as large areas of Georges Bank in the NW Atlantic. It continues to spread rapidly and compete aggressively with native, hard substrate species (e.g., mussels, barnacles, bryozoans, other ascidians). In addition, it can(More)