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Hedgehog signalling--an essential pathway during embryonic pancreatic development, the misregulation of which has been implicated in several forms of cancer--may also be an important mediator in human pancreatic carcinoma. Here we report that sonic hedgehog, a secreted hedgehog ligand, is abnormally expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and its precursor(More)
Gastric adenocarcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is present in the malignant cells of approximately 10% of cases. It is unclear whether EBV is being missed in some gastric adenocarcinomas due to insensitive test methods or partial EBV genome loss. In this study, we screened 113 gastric adenocarcinomas(More)
Hippo-Lats-Yorkie signaling regulates tissue overgrowth and tumorigenesis in Drosophila. We show that the Mst1 and Mst2 protein kinases, the mammalian Hippo orthologs, are cleaved and constitutively activated in the mouse liver. Combined Mst1/2 deficiency in the liver results in loss of inhibitory Ser127 phosphorylation of the Yorkie ortholog, Yap1, massive(More)
BACKGROUND The presence of measles virus (MV) RNA in bowel tissue from children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances was reported in 1998. Subsequent investigations found no associations between MV exposure and ASD but did not test for the presence of MV RNA in bowel or focus on children with ASD and GI disturbances.(More)
BACKGROUND In the setting of chronic liver injury in humans, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and EGF receptor (EGFR) are up-regulated and have been proposed to have vital roles in both liver regeneration and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Chronic liver injury also leads to hepatic stellate cell (HSC) differentiation and a novel subpopulation(More)
BACKGROUND The genetics of advanced biliary tract cancers (BTC), which encompass intra- and extra-hepatic cholangiocarcinomas as well as gallbladder carcinomas, are heterogeneous and remain to be fully defined. METHODS To better characterize mutations in established known oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes we tested a mass spectrometric based platform(More)
BACKGROUND Metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma has a short median overall survival (OS) of 5-6 months. However, a subgroup of patients survives more than 1 year. We analyzed the survival outcomes of this subgroup and evaluated clinical and pathological factors that might affect survival durations. METHODS We identified 20 patients with metastatic or(More)
Both patients and physicians prefer the oral route of drug delivery. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, though, limits the bioavailability of certain therapeutics because of its protease and bacteria-rich environment as well as general pH variability from pH 1 to 7. These extreme environments make oral delivery particularly challenging for the biologic class(More)
Caroli's Disease (CD) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. This report describes a patient with cholangiocarcinoma arising in the setting of monolobar CD. In spite of detailed investigations including biliary enteric bypass and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, the diagnosis of mucinous(More)
The interpretation of colonic biopsies related to inflammatory conditions can be challenging because the colorectal mucosa has a limited repertoire of morphologic responses to various injurious agents. Only few processes have specific diagnostic features, and many of the various histological patterns reflect severity and duration of the disease. Importantly(More)