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IgG4-related disease is a newly recognized fibro-inflammatory condition characterized by several features: a tendency to form tumefactive lesions in multiple sites; a characteristic histopathological appearance; and-often but not always-elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. An international symposium on IgG4-related disease was held in Boston, MA, on 4-7(More)
Hedgehog signalling--an essential pathway during embryonic pancreatic development, the misregulation of which has been implicated in several forms of cancer--may also be an important mediator in human pancreatic carcinoma. Here we report that sonic hedgehog, a secreted hedgehog ligand, is abnormally expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and its precursor(More)
Hippo-Lats-Yorkie signaling regulates tissue overgrowth and tumorigenesis in Drosophila. We show that the Mst1 and Mst2 protein kinases, the mammalian Hippo orthologs, are cleaved and constitutively activated in the mouse liver. Combined Mst1/2 deficiency in the liver results in loss of inhibitory Ser127 phosphorylation of the Yorkie ortholog, Yap1, massive(More)
Several diverse genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatic exocrine neoplasia have been developed. These mouse models have a spectrum of pathologic changes; however, until now, there has been no uniform nomenclature to characterize these changes. An international workshop, sponsored by The National Cancer Institute and the University of Pennsylvania,(More)
BACKGROUND The presence of measles virus (MV) RNA in bowel tissue from children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances was reported in 1998. Subsequent investigations found no associations between MV exposure and ASD but did not test for the presence of MV RNA in bowel or focus on children with ASD and GI disturbances.(More)
BACKGROUND In the setting of chronic liver injury in humans, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and EGF receptor (EGFR) are up-regulated and have been proposed to have vital roles in both liver regeneration and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Chronic liver injury also leads to hepatic stellate cell (HSC) differentiation and a novel subpopulation(More)
BACKGROUND The genetics of advanced biliary tract cancers (BTC), which encompass intra- and extra-hepatic cholangiocarcinomas as well as gallbladder carcinomas, are heterogeneous and remain to be fully defined. METHODS To better characterize mutations in established known oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes we tested a mass spectrometric based platform(More)
BACKGROUND Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma represents 90% of pancreatic cancers and is an important cause of cancer death in the United States. Operative resection remains as the only treatment providing prolonged survival, but even after a curative resection, 5-year survival rates are low. Our aim was to identify the prognostic factors for long-term(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Liver biopsy, the current clinical gold standard for fibrosis assessment, is invasive and has sampling errors, and is not optimal for screening, monitoring, or clinical decision-making. Fibrosis is characterized by excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins including type I collagen. We hypothesize that molecular magnetic(More)
An essential element for any new advanced imaging technology is standardization of indications, terminology, categorization of images, and research priorities. In this review, we propose a state-of-the-art classification system for normal and pathological states in gastrointestinal disease using probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE). The Miami(More)