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Plants are the principal source of iron in most diets, yet iron availability often limits plant growth. In response to iron deficiency, Arabidopsis roots induce the expression of the divalent cation transporter IRT1. Here, we present genetic evidence that IRT1 is essential for the uptake of iron from the soil. An Arabidopsis knockout mutant in IRT1 is(More)
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid hormones that control many aspects of plant growth and development. BRs bind to the plasma membrane receptor kinase BRI1, and act through a signalling pathway that involves a glycogen synthase kinase-3-like kinase (BIN2) and a serine/threonine phosphatase (BSU1). Previous models proposed that BIN2 negatively regulates BR(More)
Brassinosteroids (BRs), the polyhydroxylated steroid hormones of plants, regulate the growth and differentiation of plants throughout their life cycle. Over the past several years, genetic and biochemical approaches have yielded great progress in understanding BR signaling. Unlike their animal counterparts, BRs are perceived at the plasma membrane by direct(More)
Iron deficiency induces a complex set of responses in plants, including developmental and physiological changes, to increase iron uptake from soil. In Arabidopsis, many transporters involved in the absorption and distribution of iron have been identified over the past decade. However, little is known about the signaling pathways and networks driving the(More)
Current work in modeling has focused on fuzziness as it applies to single entities. An application of fuzzy theory may be made to managing data sets and collections, thus treating the data sets as collection of fuzzy objects. The application of fuzzy theory to management of sets creates has not been fully explored. In the area of Geospatial Information(More)
DNA matching is a crucial step in sequence alignment. Since sequence alignment is an approximate matching process there is a need for good approximate algorithms. The process of matching in sequence alignment is generally finding longest common subsequences. However, finding a longest common subsequence may not be the best solution for either a database(More)
K-means is a popular clustering algorithm that requires a huge initial set to start the clustering. K-means is an unsupervised clustering method which does not guarantee convergence. Numerous improvements to K-means have been done to make its performance better. Expectation Maximization is a statistical technique for maximum likelihood estimation using(More)
Spatial data has become more important everyday in decision-making and planning processes. As such, it needs to be stored and retrieved in information systems that often require high performance due to the voluminous nature of spatial data. Typically this is not much of a problem unless one considers the effect of spatial extent as a function of time in(More)