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The rice blast resistance (R) gene Pi-ta mediates gene-for-gene resistance against strains of the fungus Magnaporthe grisea that express avirulent alleles of AVR-Pita. Using a map-based cloning strategy, we cloned Pi-ta, which is linked to the centromere of chromosome 12. Pi-ta encodes a predicted 928-amino acid cytoplasmic receptor with a centrally(More)
A fundamental hallmark of fungal growth is that vegetative hyphae grow exclusively by extension at the hyphal tip. However, this model of apical growth is incompatible with endophyte colonization of grasses by the symbiotic Neotyphodium and Epichloë species. These fungi are transmitted through host seed, and colonize aerial tissues that develop from(More)
Rice expressing the Pi-ta gene is resistant to strains of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea, expressing AVR-Pita in a gene-for-gene relationship. Pi-ta encodes a putative cytoplasmic receptor with a centrally localized nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich domain (LRD) at the C-terminus. AVR-Pita is predicted to encode a metalloprotease with an(More)
Neotyphodium and Epichloë spp are closely related asexual and sexual endophytic fungi, respectively, that form mutualistic associations with cool season grasses of the subfamily Pooideae. The endophytes confer a number of advantages to their hosts, but also can cause animal toxicoses and these effects are, in many cases, due to the production of fungal(More)
Lolitrems are potent tremorgenic mycotoxins that are synthesised by clavicipitaceous fungal endophytes of the Epichloë/Neotyphodium group in association with grasses. These indole-diterpenes confer major ecological benefits on the grass-endophyte symbiotum. A molecular signature for diterpene biosynthesis is the presence of two geranylgeranyl diphosphate(More)
Lolitrems are a structurally diverse group of indole-diterpene mycotoxins synthesized by Epichloë/Neotyphodium endophytes in association with Pooid grasses. Using suppression subtractive hybridization combined with chromosome walking, two clusters of genes for lolitrem biosynthesis were isolated from Neotyphodium lolii, a mutualistic endophyte of perennial(More)
ABSTRACT The resistance gene Pi-ta protects rice crops against the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea expressing the avirulence gene AVR-Pita in a gene-for-gene manner. Pi-ta, originally introgressed into japonica rice from indica origin, was previously isolated by positional cloning. In this study, we report the nucleotide sequence of a 5,113-base pair(More)
We have identified from the mutualistic grass endophyte Epichloë festucae a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene (sidN) encoding a siderophore synthetase. The enzymatic product of SidN is shown to be a novel extracellular siderophore designated as epichloënin A, related to ferrirubin from the ferrichrome family. Targeted gene disruption of sidN eliminated(More)
beta-1,6-glucanases degrade the polysaccharide beta-1,6-glucan, a cell wall component in some filamentous fungi. A single copy of a beta-1,6-glucanase gene, designated gcnA, was identified in each of the grass endophytic fungi Neotyphodium lolii and Epichloë festucae. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the GcnA protein is a member of glycosyl hydrolase(More)
Fungal endophytes belonging to the genus Epichloë form associations with temperate grasses belonging to the sub-family Poöideae that range from mutualistic through to pathogenic. We previously identified a novel endophyte gene (designated gigA for grass induced gene) that is one of the most abundantly expressed fungal transcripts in endophyte-infected(More)