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BACKGROUND Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a human carcinogen after inhalation exposure. Humans also ingest Cr(VI) from contaminated drinking water and soil; however, limited data exist on the oral toxicity and carcinogenicity of Cr(VI). OBJECTIVE We characterized the chronic oral toxicity and carcinogenicity of Cr(VI) in rodents. METHODS The National(More)
Perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid are perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) widely distributed in the environment. Previous studies of PFCs and birth weight are equivocal. The authors examined this association in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), using data from 901 women enrolled from 2003 to 2004 and selected for a prior(More)
Alterations in nutritional status affect hepatic cytochrome P450 levels. Since cytochromes P450 participate in the metabolism of arachidonic acid, we hypothesized that changes in liver P450 arachidonic acid metabolism occur during fasting and refeeding. Male Fisher 344 rats were either fed, fasted 48 hr (F48), fasted 48 hr and then refed 6 hr (F48/R6), or(More)
This study tested the hypothesis that gene expression profiling can reveal indicators of subtle injury to the liver induced by a low dose of a substance that does not cause overt toxicity as defined by conventional criteria of toxicology (e.g., abnormal clinical chemistry and histopathology). For the purpose of this study we defined this low dose as(More)
Toxicity studies were performed by exposing F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to 2- and 4-chloronitrobenzene (CNB) by whole-body inhalation 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 13 weeks. Animals were evaluated for clinical chemistry (rats), hematology (rats), histopathology, and body/organ weights. Exposure concentrations were 0, 1.1, 2.3, 4.5, 9, and 18 ppm for 2-CNB and(More)
BACKGROUND Perfluorinated compounds are ubiquitous pollutants; epidemiologic data suggest they may be associated with adverse health outcomes, including subfecundity. We examined subfecundity in relation to 2 perfluorinated compounds-perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). METHODS This case-control analysis included 910 women(More)
Gemfibrozil is a widely prescribed hypolipidemic agent in humans and a peroxisome proliferator and liver carcinogen in rats. Three-month feed studies of gemfibrozil were conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) in male Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats, B6C3F1 mice, and Syrian hamsters, primarily to examine mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenicity. There was(More)
The effects of acute poisoning by cupric sulfate in a number of species are well known; however, the effects of chronic low-level ingestion of cupric sulfate are less well characterized. Because exposure of humans to cupric sulfate may occur through drinking water, food, soil, or ambient air, subchronic toxicity studies were conducted in male and female(More)
Chloroethane and bromoethane have been shown to cause a marked uterine tumor response in B6C3F1 mice exposed for 2 years. These chemicals are nearly unique in this regard among the nearly 400 chemicals studied by the National Toxicology Program, and the reasons for this carcinogenic activity are unclear. The possible relationship of changes in blood(More)
Diet contributes to over one-third of cancer deaths in the Western world, yet the factors in the diet that influence cancer are not elucidated. A reduction in caloric intake dramatically slows cancer progression in rodents, and this may be a major contribution to dietary effects on cancer. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is lowered during dietary(More)