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Functional MRI experiments in human subjects strongly suggest that the striatum participates in processing information about the predictability of rewarding stimuli. However, stimuli can be unpredictable in character (what stimulus arrives next), unpredictable in time (when the stimulus arrives), and unpredictable in amount (how much arrives). These(More)
A recent flurry of neuroimaging and decision-making experiments in humans, when combined with single-unit data from orbitofrontal cortex, suggests major additions to current models of reward processing. We review these data and models and use them to develop a specific computational relationship between the value of a predictor and the future rewards or(More)
Cooperation based on reciprocal altruism has evolved in only a small number of species, yet it constitutes the core behavioral principle of human social life. The iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game has been used to model this form of cooperation. We used fMRI to scan 36 women as they played an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game with another woman to investigate(More)
The mesolimbic dopaminergic system has long been known to be involved in the processing of rewarding stimuli, although recent evidence from animal research has suggested a more specific role of signaling errors in the prediction of rewards. We tested this hypothesis in humans, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and an operant conditioning(More)
It is well-known that social influences affect consumption decisions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with social influence with regard to a common consumer good: music. Our study population was adolescents, age 12-17. Music is a common purchase in this age group, and it is widely believed(More)
Although one proposed function of both the striatum and its major dopamine inputs is related to coding rewards and reward-related stimuli, an alternative view suggests a more general role of the striatum in processing salient events, regardless of their reward value. Here we define saliency as an event that both is unexpected and elicits an(More)
We use neuroimaging to predict cultural popularity — something that is popular in the broadest sense and appeals to a large number of individuals. Neuroeconomic research suggests that activity in reward-related regions of the brain, notably the orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum, is predictive of future purchasing decisions, but it is unknown whether(More)
Given the choice of waiting for an adverse outcome or getting it over with quickly, many people choose the latter. Theoretical models of decision-making have assumed that this occurs because there is a cost to waiting-i.e., dread. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the neural responses to waiting for a cutaneous electric shock. Some(More)
While the striatum has been implicated in reward processing, an alternative view contends that the striatum processes salient events in general. Using fMRI, we investigated human striatal responses to monetary reward while modulating the saliency surrounding its receipt. Money was maximally salient when its receipt depended on a correct response (active)(More)
"Plain question and plain answer make the shortest road out of most perplexities." Mark Twain-Life on the Mississippi. A new methodology for the measurement of the neural substrates of human social interaction is described. This technology, termed "Hyperscan," embodies both the hardware and the software necessary to link magnetic resonance scanners through(More)