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BACKGROUND Circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D] are used to define vitamin D deficiency. Current clinical 25-(OH)D targets based on associations with intermediate markers of bone metabolism may not reflect optimal levels for other chronic diseases and do not account for known seasonal variation in 25-(OH)D concentration. OBJECTIVE(More)
CONTEXT Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with greater risks of many chronic diseases across large, prospective community-based studies. Substrate 25-hydroxyvitamin D must be converted to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D for full biological activity, and complex metabolic pathways suggest that interindividual variability in vitamin D(More)
OBJECTIVES While studies have suggested that gout and hyperuricaemia are associated with the risk of premature death, none has investigated the role of urate-lowering therapy on this critical outcome. We examined the impact of allopurinol, the most commonly used urate-lowering drug, on the risk of mortality in hyperuricaemic patients. METHODS From a(More)
Low circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) are associated with adverse health outcomes in diverse populations. However, 25(OH)D concentrations vary seasonally with varying exposure to sunlight, so single measurements may poorly reflect long-term 25(OH)D exposure. The authors investigated cyclical trends in average serum 25(OH)D(More)
Chronic kidney disease is characterized, in part, as a state of decreased production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D); however, this paradigm overlooks the role of vitamin D catabolism. We developed a mass spectrometric assay to quantify serum concentration of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)(2)D), the first metabolic product of(More)
BACKGROUND The seasonal variation in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations is large relative to mean values. Single measurements may misclassify annual exposure, which may lead to bias in research and complicate clinical decision making. OBJECTIVE We aimed to develop and validate a model for adjusting a single measurement of a serum(More)
Diabetes mellitus and hypertension commonly coexist, but the nature of this link is not well understood. The authors tested whether diabetes and higher concentrations of fasting serum glucose and insulin are associated with increased risk of developing incident hypertension in the community-based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. At baseline, 3,513(More)
Adaptive clinical trial design has been proposed as a promising new approach that may improve the drug discovery process. Proponents of adaptive sample size re-estimation promote its ability to avoid 'up-front' commitment of resources, better address the complicated decisions faced by data monitoring committees, and minimize accrual to studies having(More)
Many papers have introduced adaptive clinical trial methods that allow modifications to the sample size based on interim estimates of treatment effect. There has been extensive commentary on type I error control and efficiency considerations, but little research on estimation after an adaptive hypothesis test. We evaluate the reliability and precision of(More)