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Entrainment of anticipatory activity and wakefulness to nutrient availability is a poorly understood component of energy homeostasis. Restricted feeding (RF) paradigms with a periodicity of 24 h rapidly induce entrainment of rhythms anticipating food presentation that are independent of master clocks in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) but do require other(More)
The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) integrates visceral sensory signals with information from the forebrain to control homeostatic functions, including food intake. Melanocortin 3/4 receptor (MC3/4R) ligands administered directly to the caudal brainstem powerfully modulate meal size but not frequency, suggesting the enhancement of visceral satiety signals.(More)
Orexin-expressing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus with their wide projections throughout the brain are important for the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, ingestive behavior, and the coordination of these behaviors in the environmental context. To further identify downstream effector targets of the orexin system, we examined in detail orexin-A(More)
Increased food intake is a major factor in the development of obesity, and the control of meal size is a valid approach to reduce food intake in humans. Meal termination, or satiety, is thought to be organized within the caudal brainstem where direct signals from the food handling alimentary canal and long-term signals from the forebrain converge in the(More)
The central nervous melanocortin system is a neural network linking nutrient-sensing systems with hypothalamic, limbic and hindbrain neurons regulating behavior and metabolic homeostasis. Primary melanocortin neurons releasing melanocortin receptor ligands residing in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus are regulated by nutrient-sensing and metabolic signals.(More)
The neural pathways through which central serotonergic systems regulate food intake and body weight remain to be fully elucidated. We report that serotonin, via action at serotonin1B receptors (5-HT1BRs), modulates the endogenous release of both agonists and antagonists of the melanocortin receptors, which are a core component of the central circuitry(More)
The burden of type 2 diabetes and its associated premature morbidity and mortality is rapidly growing, and the need for novel efficacious treatments is pressing. We report here that serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT(2C)R) agonists, typically investigated for their anorectic properties, significantly improve glucose tolerance and reduce plasma insulin in murine(More)
Signals from the gut and hypothalamus converge in the caudal brainstem to control ingestive behavior. We have previously shown that phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the solitary nucleus (NTS) is necessary for food intake suppression by exogenous cholecystokinin (CCK). Here we test whether this intracellular signaling cascade is also involved in the integration(More)
Melanocortin-3 receptors (Mc3rs) in the central nervous system are involved in expression of anticipatory rhythms and synchronizing clocks maintaining circadian rhythms during restricted feeding (RF) [mice housed under a 12-h light-dark cycle with lights on between zeitgeber time (ZT) 0 to ZT12 fed 60% of normal calories between ZT7 and ZT11]. Because the(More)
Ingestive behavior is controlled by a complex interplay between signals conveying availability of (1) potentially ingestible food in the environment, (2) digestible food in the alimentary canal, (3) circulating fuels and (4) stored fuels. Each of these four classes of signals interact with specific sensors and neural circuits whose integrated output(More)