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Little is known about the biochemical environment in phagosomes harboring an infectious agent. To assess the state of this organelle we captured the transcriptional responses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in macrophages from wild-type and nitric oxide (NO) synthase 2–deficient mice before and after immunologic activation. The intraphagosomal(More)
An estimated two billion persons are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The host factors that initiate and maintain this latent state and the mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis survives within latent lesions are compelling but unanswered questions. One such host factor may be nitric oxide (NO), a product of activated macrophages that(More)
Integrins are heterodimeric cell-surface proteins that regulate cell growth, migration and survival. We have shown previously that the epithelial-restricted integrin alpha(v)beta6 has another critical function; that is, it binds and activates latent transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Through a global analysis of pulmonary gene expression in the(More)
We have taken the first steps towards a complete reconstruction of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis regulatory network based on ChIP-Seq and combined this reconstruction with system-wide profiling of messenger RNAs, proteins, metabolites and lipids during hypoxia and re-aeration. Adaptations to hypoxia are thought to have a prominent role in M. tuberculosis(More)
RATIONALE Macrophages are believed to play a central role in emphysema based largely on data from mouse models. However, the relevance of these models to smoking-related lung disease in humans is uncertain. OBJECTIVES We sought to comprehensively characterize the effects of smoking on gene expression in human alveolar macrophages and to compare these with(More)
Previous studies in intact lung suggest that CFTR may play a role in cAMP-regulated fluid transport from the distal air spaces of the lung. However, the potential contribution of different epithelial cells (alveolar epithelial type I, type II, or bronchial epithelial cells) to CFTR-regulated fluid transport is unknown. In this study we determined whether(More)
Rhinovirus (RV) infection is the major cause of common colds and of asthma exacerbations. Because the epithelial cell layer is the primary target of RV infection, we hypothesize that RV-induced airway disease is associated with the perturbation of airway epithelial gene expression. In this study, well differentiated primary human airway epithelial cells(More)
The sequence of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain H37Rv has been available for over a decade, but the biology of the pathogen remains poorly understood. Genome sequences from other Mtb strains and closely related bacteria present an opportunity to apply the power of comparative genomics to understand the evolution of Mtb pathogenesis. We(More)
BACKGROUND Early transition to labor remains a major cause of infant mortality, yet the causes are largely unknown. Although several marker genes have been identified, little is known about the underlying global gene expression patterns and pathways that orchestrate these striking changes. RESULTS We performed a detailed time-course study of over 9,000(More)
Comprehensive and systematic analysis of airway gene expression represents a strategy for addressing the multiple, complex, and largely untested hypotheses that exist for disease mechanisms, including asthma. Here, we report a novel real-time PCR-based method specifically designed for quantification of multiple low-abundance transcripts using as little as(More)