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Regulatory T (T reg) cells are critical regulators of immune tolerance. Most T reg cells are defined based on expression of CD4, CD25, and the transcription factor, FoxP3. However, these markers have proven problematic for uniquely defining this specialized T cell subset in humans. We found that the IL-7 receptor (CD127) is down-regulated on a subset of(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a debilitating autoimmune disease that results from T-cell-mediated destruction of insulin-producing beta-cells. Its incidence has increased during the past several decades in developed countries, suggesting that changes in the environment (including the human microbial environment) may influence disease pathogenesis. The incidence(More)
Pancreatic islet β-cell insufficiency underlies pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus; thus, functional β-cell replacement from renewable sources is the focus of intensive worldwide effort. However, in vitro production of progeny that secrete insulin in response to physiological cues from primary human cells has proven elusive. Here we describe fractionation,(More)
OBJECTIVE Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) have catalyzed the field of immune regulation. However, translating Treg-based therapies from animal models of autoimmunity to human clinical trials requires robust methods for the isolation and expansion of these cells-a need forming the basis for these studies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Tregs from recent-onset type(More)
The dysregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in multiple cell types during chronic inflammation is indicative of their pathogenic role in autoimmune diseases. Among the many RTKs, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) stands out for its multiple effects on immunity, vascularization, and cell migration. Herein, we examined whether(More)
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