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Regulatory T (T reg) cells are critical regulators of immune tolerance. Most T reg cells are defined based on expression of CD4, CD25, and the transcription factor, FoxP3. However, these markers have proven problematic for uniquely defining this specialized T cell subset in humans. We found that the IL-7 receptor (CD127) is down-regulated on a subset of(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a debilitating autoimmune disease that results from T-cell-mediated destruction of insulin-producing beta-cells. Its incidence has increased during the past several decades in developed countries, suggesting that changes in the environment (including the human microbial environment) may influence disease pathogenesis. The incidence(More)
OBJECTIVE Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) have catalyzed the field of immune regulation. However, translating Treg-based therapies from animal models of autoimmunity to human clinical trials requires robust methods for the isolation and expansion of these cells-a need forming the basis for these studies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Tregs from recent-onset type(More)
The development of autoimmune diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse results from a breakdown in tolerance to pancreatic islet antigens. CD28-B7 and CD40 ligand-CD40 (CD40L-CD40) costimulatory pathways affect the development of disease and are promising therapeutic targets. Indeed, it was shown previously that diabetes fails to develop in NOD-B7-2-/-(More)
BACKGROUND The applicability of islet transplantation as treatment for type 1 diabetes is limited by long-term graft dysfunction, immunosuppressive drug toxicity, need for multiple donors, and increased risk of allosensitization. We describe two immunosuppressive regimens based on the costimulation blocker belatacept (BELA) or the antileukocyte functional(More)
BACKGROUND Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is the second most prevalent chronic illness of children. Investigation of the treatment of IDDM is hindered by the lack of a reproducible and easily maintained non-human primate model of this disorder. METHODS We induced IDDM in 11 juvenile cynomolgus monkeys after a single (150 mg/kg) intravenous(More)
The applicability of islet transplantation as treatment for type 1 diabetes is limited by renal and islet toxicities of currently available immunosuppressants. We describe a novel immunosuppressive regimen using the antileukocyte functional antigen-1 antibody efalizumab which permits long-term islet allograft survival while reducing the need for(More)
The recent development of small-molecule tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitors offers increasing opportunities for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In this study, we investigated the potential of this new class of drugs to treat and cure type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the NOD mouse. Treatment of prediabetic and new onset diabetic mice with imatinib (Gleevec)(More)
Pancreatic islet β-cell insufficiency underlies pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus; thus, functional β-cell replacement from renewable sources is the focus of intensive worldwide effort. However, in vitro production of progeny that secrete insulin in response to physiological cues from primary human cells has proven elusive. Here we describe fractionation,(More)
Donor-specific tolerance induced by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) would allow organ allografting without chronic immunosuppressive therapy. However, the toxicity of conditioning regimens used to achieve marrow engraftment has precluded the clinical use of BMT for tolerance induction. We have developed a BMT strategy that achieves alloengraftment without(More)