Gregory Joseph Zipfel

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Thrombolysis has become established as an acute treatment for human stroke. But despite multiple clinical trials, neuroprotective strategies have yet to be proved effective in humans. Here we discuss intrinsic tissue mechanisms of ischaemic brain injury, and present a perspective that broadening of therapeutic targeting beyond excitotoxicity and neuronal(More)
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an acute cerebrovascular event which can have devastating effects on the central nervous system as well as a profound impact on several other organs. SAH patients are routinely admitted to an intensive care unit and are cared for by a multidisciplinary team. A lack of high quality data has led to numerous approaches to(More)
The brain is particularly vulnerable to ischemia. Complete interruption of blood flow to the brain for only 5 minutes triggers the death of vulnerable neurons in several brain regions, whereas 20–40 minutes of ischemia is required to kill cardiac myocytes or kidney cells. In part, the prominent vulnerability of brain tissue to ischemic damage reflects its(More)
The amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) plays a central pathophysiological role in Alzheimer's disease, but little is known about the concentration and dynamics of this secreted peptide in the extracellular space of the human brain. We used intracerebral microdialysis to obtain serial brain interstitial fluid (ISF) samples in 18 patients who were undergoing(More)
The contributing effect of cerebrovascular pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become increasingly appreciated. Recent evidence suggests that amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta), the same peptide found in neuritic plaques of AD, may play a role via its vasoactive properties. Several studies have examined young Tg2576 mice expressing mutant amyloid precursor(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE In light of recent evidence suggesting that an upregulation of K+ efflux mediated by outward delayed rectifier (I(K)) channels promotes central neuronal apoptosis, we sought to test the possibility that blockers of I(K) channels might be neuroprotective against hypoxia/ischemia-induced neuronal death. METHODS Membrane currents were(More)
OBJECTIVE Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae (dAVF) with cortical venous drainage (CVD) (Borden Types 2 and 3) are reported to carry a 15% annual risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) or nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit (NHND). The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical course of Type 2 and 3 dAVFs that present with ICH or NHND with those(More)
Cavernous malformations (CMs) are angiographically occult, low-pressure neurovascular lesions with distinct imaging and clinical characteristics. They present with seizure, neurological compromise due to lesion hemorrhage or expansion, or as incidental findings on neuroimaging studies. Treatment options include conservative therapy, medical management of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Anemia is common after subarachnoid hemorrhage and may exacerbate the reduction in oxygen delivery (DO(2)) underlying delayed cerebral ischemia. The association between lower hemoglobin and worse outcome, including more cerebral infarcts, supports a role for red blood cell transfusion to correct anemia. However, the cerebral response(More)
This article presents a modification to the existing classification scales of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas based on newly published research regarding the relationship of clinical symptoms and outcome. The 2 commonly used scales, the Borden-Shucart and Cognard scales, rely entirely on angiographic features for categorization. The most critical(More)