Gregory James Fox

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Diagnostic term Definition Active tuberculosis Tuberculosis diagnosed based on clinical and/or microbiological criteria. Latent tuberculosis infection Contacts with a tuberculin skin test (TST) result of ≥ 10 mm at 48 to 72 hours. Where these data were not available we used the definition applied in the paper. If both TST and interferon gamma release assay(More)
In an accident later known as the Lübeck disaster, 251 neonates were orally given three doses of the new Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) antituberculosis (TB) vaccine contaminated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A total of 173 infants developed clinical or radiological signs of TB but survived the infection, while 72 died from TB. While some blamed the(More)
Over the past decade, student participation in international health has moved beyond individual elective terms in developing countries to collective responses led by student international health organisations. There are now at least 10 such organisations, with more than 500 medical students participating at a local or national level each year. Student(More)
BACKGROUND Close contacts of patients with tuberculosis (TB) have a substantial risk of developing the disease, particularly during the first year after exposure. Household contact investigation has recently been recommended as a strategy to enhance case detection in high-burden countries. However the barriers to its implementation in these settings remain(More)
BACKGROUND Medical treatment for multidrug-resistant (MDR)-tuberculosis is complex, toxic, and associated with poor outcomes. Surgical lung resection may be used as an adjunct to medical therapy, with the intent of reducing bacterial burden and improving cure rates. We conducted an individual patient data metaanalysis to evaluate the effectiveness of(More)
The dominant approach to decision-making in public health policy for infectious diseases relies heavily on expert opinion, which often applies empirical evidence to policy questions in a manner that is neither systematic nor transparent. Although systematic reviews are frequently commissioned to inform specific components of policy (such as efficacy), the(More)
Domestic medical graduate numbers will almost double between 2005 and 2012, necessitating substantial increases in supervision at prevocational and vocational levels. New approaches to resourcing and governance of training are needed to expand the capacity of the health system to deliver quality training; new settings will also be required to expand(More)
Existing therapies for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) have substantial limitations, in terms of their effectiveness, side-effect profile, and complexity of administration. Bedaquiline is a novel diarylquinoline antibiotic that has recently been investigated as an adjunct to existing therapies for MDR-TB. Currently, limited clinical data are(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis is a major global health challenge that is caused by a bacteria which is spread by airborne droplets. Mostly patients are identified in high-burden countries when they visit health care facilities ('passive case finding'). Contacts of tuberculosis patients are a high-risk group for developing the disease. Actively screening contacts(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet the reasons why only 10% of people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis go on to develop clinical disease are poorly understood. Genetically determined variation in the host immune response is one factor influencing the response to(More)