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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumor in humans. Systemic immunity against gene therapy vectors has been shown to hamper therapeutic efficacy; however, helper-dependent high-capacity adenovirus (HC-Ad) vectors elicit sustained transgene expression, even in the presence of systemic anti-adenoviral immunity.(More)
As glioma cells infiltrate the brain they become associated with various microanatomic brain structures such as blood vessels, white matter tracts, and brain parenchyma. How these distinct invasion patterns coordinate tumor growth and influence clinical outcomes remain poorly understood. We have investigated how perivascular growth affects glioma growth(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and deadliest of adult primary brain tumors. Due to its invasive nature and sensitive location, complete resection remains virtually impossible. The resistance of GBM against chemotherapy and radiotherapy necessitate the development of novel therapies. Gene therapy is proposed for the treatment of brain(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells safeguard against early tumor formation by destroying transformed target cells in a process referred to as NK immune surveillance. However, the immune escape mechanisms used by malignant brain tumors to subvert this innate type of immune surveillance remain unclear. Here we show that malignant glioma cells suppress NK immune(More)
In human gliomas, the RTK/RAS/PI(3)K signaling pathway is nearly always altered. We present a model of experimental gliomagenesis that elucidates the contributions of genes involved in this pathway (PDGF-B ligand, HRAS-G12V, and AKT). We also examine the effect on gliomagenesis by the potential modifier gene, IDH1-R132H. Injections of lentiviral-encoded(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a deadly primary brain tumor in adults, with a median survival of ~12-18 months post-diagnosis. Despite recent advances in conventional therapeutic approaches, only modest improvements in median survival have been achieved; GBM usually recurs within 12 months post-resection, with poor prognosis. Thus, novel therapeutic(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading causative agent of blood-borne chronic hepatitis and is the target of intensive vaccine research. The virus genome encodes a number of structural and nonstructural antigens which could be used in a subunit vaccine. The HCV envelope glycoprotein E2 has recently been shown to bind CD81 on human cells and therefore is a(More)
Immunosuppressive checkpoints mediated by IDO, CTLA4, and PD1/PDL1 play a critical role in glioma progression and the efficacy of immunotherapies. Combined blockade of these immunosuppressive checkpoints in a glioma model elicited long-term survival. This combined blockade adds to the armamentarium of anti-glioma therapies, which could be implemented in(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults with a median survival of 16.2-21.2 months post diagnosis (Stupp et al., N Engl J Med 352(10): 987-996, 2005). Because of its location, complete surgical resection is impossible; additionally because GBM is also resistant to chemotherapeutic and radiotherapy approaches,(More)
Sonobuoys equipped with a Global Positioning System (GPS) prove extremely useful when calibrating underwater sonar systems. Hermes Electronics Inc., in collaboration with Defence Research Establishment Atlantic (DREA) has developed such a buoy. The sonobuoy is a modified version of Hermes AN/SSQ53D(2) DIFAR sonobuoy. Modifications include de-sensitizing the(More)