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The current model of measles virus (MV) pathogenesis implies that apical infection of airway epithelial cells precedes systemic spread. An alternative model suggests that primarily infected lymphatic cells carry MV to the basolateral surface of epithelial cells, supporting MV shedding into the airway lumen and contagion. This model predicts that a mutant(More)
The Step Trial showed that the MRKAd5 HIV-1 subtype B Gag/Pol/Nef vaccine did not protect men from HIV infection or reduce setpoint plasma viral RNA (vRNA) levels but, unexpectedly, it did modestly enhance susceptibility to HIV infection in adenovirus type 5 (Ad5)-seropositive, uncircumcised men. As part of the process to understand the results of the Step(More)
Patients recruited in virus-based cancer clinical trials and immunocompromised individuals in need of vaccination would profit from viral strains with defined attenuation mechanisms. We generated measles virus (MV) strains defective for the expression of either the V protein, a modulator of the innate immune response, or the C protein, which has multiple(More)
Measles remains a leading cause of death worldwide among children because it suppresses immune function. The measles virus (MV) P gene encodes three proteins (P, V, and C) that interfere with innate immunity, controlling STAT1, STAT2, mda5, and perhaps other key regulators of immune function. We identified here three residues in the shared domain of the P(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) acute and chronic infections remain a major worldwide health problem. Towards developing an anti-HBV vaccine with single-dose scheme potential, we engineered infectious measles virus (MV) genomic cDNAs with a vaccine strain background and expression vector properties. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expression cassettes were(More)
To identify genetic changes that lead to the attenuation of measles virus (MV), a strain of MV that is pathogenic in rhesus macaques was adapted to grow in Vero cells, Vero/hSLAM cells and, to simulate the process used to derive live attenuated vaccines, in primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). Comparison of the complete genomic sequences of the(More)
The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM; CD150) is the immune cell receptor for measles virus (MV). To assess the importance of the SLAM-MV interactions for virus spread and pathogenesis, we generated a wild-type IC-B MV selectively unable to recognize human SLAM (SLAM-blind). This virus differs from the fully virulent wild-type IC-B strain by a(More)
Maternal antibody prevents the use of live, attenuated measles vaccine (LAV) before 6-9 months of age, but vaccinated 6-month-old infants can mount a T cell response. An infant macaque model was used to study the immune response to LAV in the newborn in the presence or absence of maternal antibody. Four newborn monkeys without detectable maternal antibody(More)
The widely used hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine is based on three doses of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) protein. We previously showed that vectored measles viruses (MV) expressing HBsAg retain measles vaccine function in monkeys but do not induce a protective anti-HBs response in all animals. We show here that a single dose of HBsAg protein following(More)